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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

A3-year-old castrated male Golden Retriever was evaluated because of progressive vestibular ataxia and signs of cervical pain of 2 weeks’ duration following running into a tree. On initial neurologic assessment, the dog had moderate vestibular ataxia with leaning and listing to the left side, a mild left-sided head tilt, and resistance to ventral flexion of the neck. Results of a CBC and serum biochemical profile were unremarkable other than a mild hypercholesterolemia (412 mg/dL; reference range, 120 to 310 mg/dL). Further endocrine testing to rule out other causes of hypercholesterolemia was not performed.

Etiologic diagnosis—Considering the dog's clinical signs,

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To establish a focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) protocol in dogs, determine whether FAST can be performed by veterinary clinicians without extensive ultrasonographic experience, and assess the frequency of free fluid (as determined via FAST) in the abdominal cavity of dogs following motor vehicle accidents (MVAs).

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—100 client-owned dogs evaluated within 24 hours of an MVA.

Procedure—Dogs were placed in lateral recumbency for the FAST examination. To detect fluid in the abdomen, 2 ultrasonographic views (transverse and longitudinal) were obtained at each of 4 sites (just caudal to the xiphoid process, on the midline over the urinary bladder, and at the left and right flank regions).

Results—In the 100 dogs evaluated via FAST, free abdominal fluid was detected in 45 dogs. In 40 of those 45 dogs, abdominocentesis was performed; hemoperitoneum and uroperitoneum were diagnosed in 38 and 2 dogs, respectively. Compared with dogs that had no free abdominal fluid detected via FAST, dogs that had free abdominal fluid detected via FAST had significantly higher heart rates and serum lactate concentrations and significantly lower PCVs and total solid concentrations.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate that FAST is a simple and rapid technique that can be performed on dogs in an emergency setting to detect intra-abdominal free fluid and can be performed by veterinary clinicians with minimal previous ultrasonographic experience. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225:1198–1204)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To correlate substance P content of synovial fluid with prostaglandin E2 content, radiographic evidence of joint abnormality, and anatomic location of the joint for normal and osteoarthritic joints of horses.

Sample Population—Synovial fluid from 46 normal joints in 21 horses and 16 osteoarthritic joints in 10 horses.

Procedure—Normal and osteoarthritic joints were identified by clinical and radiographic examination, by response to nerve blocks, during scintigraphy or surgery, or by clinicopathologic evaluation. Substance P and prostaglandin E2 contents of synovial fluid were determined by radioimmunoassay. Radiographs of joints were assigned a numeric score reflecting severity of lesions. Joints were assigned a numeric score reflecting anatomic location.

Results—Median concentrations of substance P and prostaglandin E2 were significantly increased in osteoarthritic joints, compared with normal joints. A significant correlation was found between concentrations of substance P and prostaglandin E2 in synovial fluid, but a correlation was not detected between substance P concentration in synovial fluid and anatomic location of the joint or between radiographic scores of osteoarthritic joints and concentrations of substance P or prostaglandin E2.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A correlation existed between concentrations of substance P and prostaglandin E2 in synovial fluid obtained from normal and osteoarthritic joints. However, content of substance P in synovial fluid cannot be predicted by the radiographic appearance of the joint or its anatomic location. Substance P and prostaglandin E2 may share an important and related role in the etiopathogenesis of osteoarthritis, lending credence to the importance of neurogenic inflammation in horses. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61: 714–718)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research