To investigate whether premedication with hydromorphone alone or combined with acepromazine or dexmedetomidine affects the incidence of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and regurgitation in dogs undergoing general anesthesia for elective orthopedic surgery.
39 healthy client-owned dogs undergoing general anesthesia for elective orthopedic surgery between November 2016 and November 2018.
For this prospective, randomized, controlled, blinded clinical trial, dogs were randomly assigned to be premedicated with hydromorphone (0.1 mg/kg, IM) alone (group H [control group]) or with either acepromazine (0.05 mg/kg, IM; group AH) or dexmedetomidine (6 μg/kg, IM; group DH) before undergoing general anesthesia induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane. A pH sensor–tipped probe was used to identify episodes of GER (esophageal pH < 4 or > 7.5 for ≥ 30 seconds). Results for GER, regurgitation, vomiting, propofol dose, and durations of food withholding and anesthesia were compiled and compared across groups.
There were 13 dogs in each group, and no meaningful differences were detected in age, body weight, sex, breed, or durations of anesthesia or food withholding across groups. Overall, 16 of the 39 (41%) dogs developed GER: 9 in group H, 6 in group AH, and 1 in group DH. The incidence of GER was significantly lower for group DH versus group H. Six of the 39 (15%) dogs regurgitated: 4 in group H and 2 in group AH.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
The combined use of dexmedetomidine and hydromorphone as premedication may be a better choice to reduce GER in healthy dogs undergoing orthopedic surgery than would the use of hydromorphone with or without acepromazine. Additional research is warranted. (Am J Vet Res 2021;82:695–700)
Objective—To assess the heritability of pancreatic
acinar atrophy (PAA) in German Shepherd Dogs
(GSDs) in the United States.
Animals—135 GSDs belonging to 2 multigenerational
Procedure—Two multigenerational pedigrees of
GSDs with family members with PAA were identified.
The clinical history of each GSD enrolled in the study
was recorded, and serum samples for canine trypsinlike
immunoreactivity (cTLI) analysis were collected
from 102 dogs. Dogs with a serum cTLI concentration
≤ 2.0 µg/L were considered to have exocrine pancreatic
insufficiency (EPI) and were assumed to have
Results—Pedigree I consisted of 59 dogs and pedigree
II of 76 dogs. Serum cTLI concentrations were
measured in 48 dogs from pedigree I and 54 dogs
from pedigree II. A total of 19 dogs (14.1%) were
determined to have EPI, 9 in pedigree I (15.3%) and
10 in pedigree II (13.6%). Of the 19 dogs with EPI, 8
were male and 11 were female.
Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Evaluation
of data by complex segregation analysis is strongly
suggestive of an autosomal recessive mode of
inheritance for EPI in GSDs in the United States.
(Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1429–1434)