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Summary

Goats from 28 states were tested for antibodies to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus. Of 3,790 goats, 1,175 (31%) tested positive, and of 196 herds tested, 143 (73%) had 1 or more seropositive members. This prevalence, based on serum samples from all goats in the participating herds, was lower than most rates reported in other studies. Such studies were based on fewer samples, incomplete sampling of herds, or smaller geographic base. Prevalence was highest in western Pacific and northern plains regions, increased with age to 3 years, was highest among goats on family-owned farms, and was lowest in the Angora breed. Differences in prevalence were not related to gender or size of herd.

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Ovine progressive pneumonia (opp) is a lentivirus-induced disease of sheep in the United States that is similar, if not identical, to maedi/visna in many other countries. Prevalence estimates of seropositivity to this virus in sheep in the United States have been confined to limited groups or flocks of sheep and have varied from 1 to 90%. In this study of detection of antibodies against opp virus, we found a lower general prevalence of antibodies to opp virus in sheep than was previously reported. Of 16,827 sheep from 29 states in the United States, 26% were seropositive and 48% of 164 flocks that were tested had 1 or more seropositive sheep. Seropositivity to opp virus for sheep within special categories was determined, although nonrandom samples that were available may have biased the results. Within regions of the United States, prevalence was highest in the Rocky Mountain region at 49% and lowest in the northern Atlantic region at 9%. Seropositive sheep were not evenly distributed among flocks, but were clustered in a few flocks of sheep. A high number of flocks had no or few seropositive sheep. Prevalence increased with age from 4% at < 1 year to a plateau of 34% at 4 years. Seropositivity was variable among breeds and was not associated with sex, wool class, or place of origin of ancestors.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To quantitate the density of Dermatophagoides farinae and D pteronyssinus and concentrations of house dust mite (HDM) allergens (Der f 1, Der p 1, and Group 2 allergens) in the indoor microenvironment of dogs.

Sample Population—50 homes in Columbus, Ohio.

Procedures—In each home, samples of dust were collected from 3 locations in which dogs spent most time. Whenever possible, the species of mites collected was identified. Mite density (mites/g of dust) was assessed, and allergen concentrations were assayed by standardized ELISAs. Relative humidity and temperature in each home were monitored during a 5-day period. Characteristics of homes and sample sources were evaluated.

Results—Dust samples from all 50 homes contained ≥ 1 HDM allergen; Der f 1 and Der p 1 were detected in 100 and 74% of homes, respectively. Fifteen homes had HDMs; compared with D pteronyssinus, D farinae was found more commonly (14/15 homes) and at a higher density. Basements, homes without central airconditioning, and dog beds that were ≥ 1 year old had high HDM allergen concentrations. Homes with ≥ 2 µg of Der f 1 or Group 2 allergens/g of dust or ≥ 100 mites/g of dust were significantly more likely to have a maximum relative humidity ≥ 75%.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicate the presence of HDMs and HDM allergens in the specific microenvironment of dogs in homes. Factors associated with high levels of exposure were identified, which may be associated with increased risk for sensitization and development of atopic diseases. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1301–1309)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To quantitate the density of Dermatophagoides farinae and D pteronyssinus and concentrations of house dust mite (HDM) allergens (Der f 1, Der p 1, and Group 2 allergens) in the indoor microenvironment of dogs.

Sample Population—50 homes in Columbus, Ohio.

Procedure—In each home, samples of dust were collected from 3 locations in which dogs spent most time. Whenever possible, the species of mites collected was identified. Mite density (mites/g of dust) was assessed, and allergen concentrations were assayed by standardized ELISAs. Relative humidity and temperature in each home were monitored during a 5-day period. Characteristics of homes and sample sources were evaluated.

Results—Dust samples from all 50 homes contained ≥ 1 HDM allergen; Der f 1 and Der p 1 were detected in 100 and 74% of homes, respectively. Fifteen homes had HDMs; compared with D pteronyssinus, D farinae was found more commonly (14/15 homes) and at a higher density. Basements, homes without central air-conditioning, and dog beds that were ≥ 1 year old had high HDM allergen concentrations. Homes with ≥ 2 µg of Der f 1 or Group 2 allergens/g of dust or ≥ 100 mites/g of dust were significantly more likely to have a maximum relative humidity ≥ 75%.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated the presence of HDMs and HDM allergens in the specific microenvironment of dogs in homes. Factors associated with high levels of exposure were identified, which may be associated with increased risk for sensitization and development of atopic diseases. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:1580–1588)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the concentration of house dust mite (HDM) allergens, Der f 1 and group 2, on the skin and hair of dogs and whether associations exist between the presence of Der f 1 and group 2 allergens on the skin and hair of dogs and household and dog characteristics.

Animals—63 pet dogs from 50 homes.

Procedure—Dogs were weighed and body surface area in square meters was determined. Skin and hair samples were obtained by vacuuming dogs. Collected dust was analyzed by use of standard ELISA techniques.

Results—HDM allergen was detected in 21 of 59 skin and hair samples. Presence of group 2 allergen on skin and hair of dogs was significantly associated with long hair, compared with short or medium length hair. Median house dust sample concentrations of Der f 1 and group 2 allergens were high in homes with dogs that had skin and hair samples that were positive for Der f 1 and group 2 allergens. Dogs with skin and hair samples that were positive for Der f 1 and group 2 allergens resided in homes with a high number of house dust samples that were positive for Der f 1, group 2, or both allergens and in homes with a mean house dust sample allergen concentration of ≥ 2 µg/g of dust.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Associations exist between environmental HDM allergen concentrations and HDM allergens on the skin and hair samples of dogs. Environmental allergen load is a major factor in accumulation of allergens on the skin and hair of dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:143–149)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research