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- Author or Editor: Amy M. Koenigshof x
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Objective—To determine the effects of protamine sulfate on clot formation time and clot strength thromboelastography variables for canine whole blood samples.
Animals—Blood samples obtained from 11 healthy dogs.
Procedures—Blood samples were collected from jugular veins of dogs into syringes with 3.2% sodium citrate (blood to citrate ratio, 9:1). Blood samples were divided into aliquots, and protamine sulfate was added to various concentrations (0 [control], 22, 44, and 66 μg/mL). Prepared samples were activated with kaolin (n = 8) or not activated (8), CaCl2 was added, and thromboelastography was performed. Reaction time (R), clot formation time (K), rate of clot formation (α angle), and maximum amplitude (MA) were measured.
Results—For kaolin-activated and nonactivated blood samples, protamine (66 μg/mL) significantly increased R and K and decreased α angle and MA, compared with values for control samples. Also, protamine (44 μg/mL) decreased MA in nonactivated blood samples and increased K and decreased α angle in kaolin-activated samples, compared with values for control samples.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated protamine prolonged clot formation time and decreased overall clot strength in a dose-dependent manner; such effects may contribute to a hypocoagulable state in dogs. Kaolin-activated and nonactivated blood samples were appropriate for measurement of the effects of protamine on coagulation. Administration of protamine to reverse the effects of heparin should be performed with caution.
To evaluate the effect of 1-Desamino-8-d-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP; desmopressin acetate) on platelet aggregation in healthy dogs receiving aspirin or clopidogrel.
7 healthy staff-owned dogs.
In this randomized double-blinded crossover study, impedance aggregometry was performed on samples of lithium-heparinized whole blood samples from dogs before (T0) treatment with aspirin (1 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h for 4 days; ASP group) or clopidogrel (1 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h for 4 days; CLP group) and then before (T1) and after (T2) treatment with DDAVP (0.3 µg/kg, IV, once). There was a 14-day washout period before the crossover component. Aggregometry was performed with 4 different assays, each of which involved a different agonist reagent to stimulate platelet function: ADP, thrombin receptor activating peptide-6, arachidonic acid, or collagen type 1.
Median results for platelet aggregometry with agonist reagents ADP, arachidonic acid, or thrombin receptor activating peptide-6 significantly decreased between T0 and T1 for the CLP group; however, no meaningful difference in platelet aggregation was detected in the ASP group. Results for platelet aggregometry did not differ substantially between T1 and T2 regardless of treatment group or assay.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Findings suggested that administration of DDAVP may have no effect on platelet aggregation (measured with platelet aggregometry) in healthy dogs treated with clopidogrel. Because no inhibition of platelet aggregation was detected for dogs in the ASP group, no conclusion could be made regarding the effects of DDAVP administered to dogs treated with aspirin.
OBJECTIVE To compare blood flow velocities of the portal vein (PV) and caudal vena cava (CVC) measured by use of pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasonography in clinically normal dogs and dogs with primary immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA).
ANIMALS 11 client-owned dogs admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital for management of primary IMHA and 21 staff- or student-owned clinically normal dogs.
PROCEDURES Flow velocities in the PV and CVC at the porta hepatis were evaluated in conscious unsedated dogs with concurrent ECG monitoring; evaluations were performed before dogs with IMHA received heparin or blood transfusions. Three measurements of peak velocity at end expiration were obtained for each vessel, and the mean was calculated. Results were compared between IMHA and control groups.
RESULTS Mean ± SD blood flow velocity in the CVC differed between control (63.0 ± 18.6 cm/s) and IMHA (104 ± 36.9 cm/s) groups. Variance in dogs with IMHA was significantly greater than that for the clinically normal dogs. No significant difference in blood flow velocity in the PV was detected between IMHA and control dogs.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Higher blood flow velocities were detected by use of pulsed-wave Doppler ultrasonography in the CVC of dogs with naturally occurring IMHA and may be used to predict anemia in patients suspected of having IMHA.
To characterize the clinical features of dogs with precursor-targeted immune-mediated anemia (PIMA).
66 dogs with PIMA.
Electronic record databases of a teaching hospital were searched to identify dogs with a diagnosis of nonregenerative anemia between 2004 and 2013. Inclusion criteria included persistent nonregenerative anemia (Hct ≤ 30% and reticulocyte count < 76,000 reticulocytes/μL), cytologic findings supportive of ineffective bone marrow erythropoiesis, and absence of underlying disease. Information regarding clinical signs, clinicopathologic findings, treatment, and outcome was extracted from records of eligible dogs. A regenerative response was defined as a reticulocyte count > 76,000 reticulocytes/μL or sustained increase in Hct of > 5%. Remission was defined as a stable Hct ≥ 35%.
The median Hct was 13%, and reticulocyte count was 17,900 reticulocytes/μL. Rubriphagocytosis was identified in bone marrow aspirate samples from 61 of 66 dogs. Collagen myelofibrosis was detected in bone marrow biopsy specimens obtained from 31 of 63 dogs. Immune-mediated targeting of mature erythrocytes was uncommon. All dogs received immunosuppressive therapy. Fifty-five dogs developed a regenerative response at a median of 29 days, and 40 of those dogs went into remission at a median of 59 days after PIMA diagnosis. Thromboembolic events were confirmed for 9 dogs and were associated with a decreased survival time. Median survival time was 913 days for all dogs.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results indicated that most dogs with PIMA responded to prolonged immunosuppressive therapy. Studies to determine optimal immunosuppressive and thromboprophylactic protocols for dogs with PIMA are warranted.