Objective—To compare cardiac index (CI), oxygen delivery index (
o2I), oxygen extraction ratio (O2ER), oxygen consumption index (
o2I), and systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI) in dogs with naturally occurring sepsis with published values for healthy dogs; compare those variables in dogs with sepsis that did or did not survive; and compare CI and
o2I in dogs with sepsis with values in dogs with nonseptic systemic inflammatory response syndrome (nSIRS).
Animals—10 dogs with naturally occurring sepsis and 11 dogs with nSIRS.
Procedures—Over 24 hours, CI,
o2I, and SVRI were measured 4 and 5 times in dogs with sepsis and with nSIRS, respectively. The mean values of each variable in each group were compared over time and between groups; data for dogs with sepsis that did or did not survive were also compared.
o2I was significantly decreased, and mean CI, O2ER,
o2I, and SVRI were not significantly different in dogs with sepsis, compared with published values for healthy dogs. Mean CI and
o2I in dogs with sepsis were significantly greater than values in dogs with nSIRS. Among dogs with sepsis that did or did not survive, values of CI,
o2I, and SVRI did not differ significantly.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Compared with values in healthy dogs, only
o2 was significantly lower in dogs with sepsis. Values of CI and
o2I were significantly higher in dogs with sepsis than in dogs with nSIRS, suggesting differing degrees of myocardial dysfunction between these groups.
Objective—To determine whether increasing the viscosity of a standard hemoglobin-based oxygen-carrying solution (HBOC) would offset its associated vasoconstrictive effects and result in improved microvascular perfusion in healthy splenectomized dogs with experimentally induced hemorrhagic shock.
Animals—12 male American Foxhounds.
Procedures—Each dog underwent anesthesia and splenectomy. Shock was induced by controlled hemorrhage until a mean arterial blood pressure of 40 mm Hg was achieved and maintained for 60 minutes. Dogs were then randomly assigned to receive either a standard or hyperviscous HBOC (6 dogs/group). Sidestream dark-field microscopy was used to assess the effects of shock and HBOC administration on the microcirculation of the buccal mucosa and the jejunal serosa. Video recordings of the microcirculation were collected before shock was induced (baseline) and at intervals up to 180 minutes following HBOC administration. Vascular analysis software was used to compute microcirculatory variables.
Results—Compared with baseline findings, hemorrhagic shock resulted in decreases in all microvascular variables in the buccal mucosa and the jejunal serosa. At all time points following HBOC administration, microvascular variables were similar to initial values and no significant differences between treatment groups were detected. At all time points following HBOC administration, blood and plasma viscosities in dogs treated with the hyperviscous solution were significantly higher than values in dogs receiving the standard solution.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In splenectomized dogs with experimentally induced hemorrhagic shock, administration of a hyperviscous HBOC did not significantly affect microvascular variables, compared with effects of a standard HBOC. Microcirculatory flow returned to baseline values in both treatment groups, suggesting that marked HBOC-associated vasoconstriction did not occur.
Objective—To assess the agreement between cardiac output (CO) measured by use of arterial pressure waveform analysis (PulseCO) and lithium dilution (LiDCO) in conscious dogs with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS).
Animals—14 dogs with naturally occurring SIRS.
Procedures—Pulse power analysis was performed on critically ill patients with a PulseCO monitor. All measurements were obtained with an indwelling arterial line and in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Intermittent measurements of CO were obtained with the LiDCO method to validate the PulseCO measurements at initial calibration (baseline; time 0) and at 4, 8, 16, and 24 hours. The 2 methods for measuring CO were compared by use of Bland-Altman analysis. An error rate for the limits of agreement between the 2 methods of < 30% was defined as being acceptable.
Results—Bland-Altman analysis did not indicate good agreement between measurements obtained by use of the PulseCO and LiDCO methods, despite no significant change in cardiac index (CI) over time as measured with the LiDCO method. The percentage error for the overall difference in CI values between the PulseCO and LiDCO measurements was 122%, which indicated that the PulseCO method was not an acceptable means of CO measurement when compared with the LiDCO method for this patient population.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Agreement between the PulseCO and LiDCO methods for measurement of CO was not acceptable at 4- and 8-hour intervals after calibration in conscious dogs with naturally occurring SIRS.
Case Description—A 2.96-kg (6.5-lb) 9-month-old spayed female domestic longhair cat was admitted for removal of a tracheal foreign body.
Clinical Findings—The cat had moderate respiratory distress but otherwise appeared to be healthy. Thoracic radiography revealed a foreign body in the trachea.
Treatment and Outcome—The cat was anesthetized and endoscopy of the trachea was performed in an attempt to retrieve the foreign body. Endoscopic removal was unsuccessful because of the shape and smooth texture of the foreign body. Surgical removal of the foreign body was not considered ideal because of its location and the risks associated with tracheotomy. Fluoroscopic-guided placement of an over-the-wire balloon catheter caudal to the foreign body was followed by inflation of the balloon and gradual traction in an orad direction, which resulted in successful removal of the foreign body (identified as a piece of landscaping gravel). The cat required supplemental oxygen and supportive care following removal of the foreign body.
Clinical Relevance—A fluoroscopic technique was used as a minimally invasive alternative to endoscopy or open-chest surgery for removal of a foreign body from the trachea of a cat. Use of this technique allowed uninterrupted ventilation of the cat throughout the procedure. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2010;237:689-694)
Objective—To determine whether dogs with head trauma have a greater incidence of seizures than the general canine patient population.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—259 client-owned dogs.
Procedures—Medical records of dogs evaluated for head trauma at The Ohio State University Veterinary Medical Center from 1999 to 2009 were reviewed. Data were collected regarding the cause of the head trauma, physical examination and neurologic examination findings, comorbidities, and the development of seizures during hospitalization. A telephone survey was conducted to question owners regarding the development of seizures after discharge. Relationships between the nature of the head trauma and the development of seizures were then examined.
Results—3.5% of dogs with head trauma developed in-hospital seizures, and 6.8% of dogs with head trauma for which follow-up information was available developed seizures after hospital discharge, compared with an epilepsy rate of 1.4% in our hospital. Dogs that developed in-hospital seizures were significantly more likely to have been hit by a car or experienced acceleration-deceleration injury. Additionally, 10% of dogs with traumatic brain injury had in-hospital seizures. No visit or patient characteristics were significantly associated with the development of out-of-hospital seizures.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dogs with head trauma may develop seizures at a greater rate than dogs in the general canine patient population. Particularly in the immediate to early posttraumatic period, clinicians should remain vigilant for the development of posttraumatic seizures and treat patients accordingly.