Objective—To compare inhibitory effects of topically applied 1% prednisolone acetate suspension, 0.03% flurbiprofen solution, 0.1% dexamethasone suspension, and 0.1% diclofenac solution on paracentesis-induced blood-aqueous barrier breakdown in cats.
Animals—9 healthy cats.
Procedures—Paracentesis of the anterior chamber was performed in both eyes of each cat. One eye of each cat was treated with a topically administered anti-inflammatory medication (1% prednisolone [n = 7 cats], 0.03% flurbiprofen , 0.1% dexamethasone , or 0.1% diclofenac ) immediately following paracentesis and at 6, 10, and 24 hours after paracentesis. The contralateral untreated eye served as the control eye. Each cat had a 6-day washout period between experimental drugs. Breakdown of the blood-aqueous barrier was quantified by use of laser flaremetry.
Results—Topical administration of 1% prednisolone significantly reduced aqueous humor flare at 4, 8, and 26 hours after paracentesis. Topical administration of 0.1% diclofenac significantly reduced aqueous humor flare at 8 and 26 hours after paracentesis. Topical administration of 0.1% dexamethasone and 0.03% flurbiprofen did not significantly decrease flare at any time point. There were significant differences in intraocular pressures between NSAID-treated eyes and untreated contralateral eyes.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Topical administration of 1% prednisolone and 0.1% diclofenac significantly reduced intraocular inflammation in cats with paracentesis-induced uveitis. Topical administration of 1% prednisolone or 0.1% diclofenac may be appropriate choices when treating cats with anterior uveitis. Topical administration of diclofenac and flurbiprofen should be used with caution in cats with a history of ocular hypertension.
Objective—To measure ocular effects (blood-aqueous barrier breakdown and intraocular pressure [IOP]) following aqueocentesis performed with needles of various sizes in dogs.
Animals—28 healthy adult dogs.
Procedures—24 dogs underwent unilateral aqueocentesis (24 treated eyes and 24 contra-lateral untreated eyes); 25-, 27-, or 30-gauge needles were used in 3 treatment groups (n = 8/group). Four dogs were untreated controls. Aqueocentesis was performed during sedation and topical anesthesia. Anterior chamber fluorophotometry was performed before and after aqueocentesis on day 1. On days 2 through 5, sedation and fluorophotometry were repeated. Intraocular pressure was measured with a rebound tonometer at multiple time points.
Results—Aqueocentesis resulted in blood-aqueous barrier breakdown detected via fluorophotometry in all treated eyes, with barrier reestablishment by day 5. On day 2, the contralateral untreated eyes of all 3 groups also had significantly increased fluorescence. Use of a 25-gauge needle resulted in a significant increase in treated eyes' anterior chamber fluorescence on days 3 and 5 as well as a significant increase in IOP 20 minutes following aqueocentesis, compared with the other treatment groups.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Aqueocentesis performed with a 25-gauge needle resulted in the greatest degree of blood-aqueous barrier breakdown and a brief state of intraocular hypertension. Use of a 27- or 30-gauge needle is recommended for aqueous paracentesis. A consensual ocular reaction appeared to occur in dogs following unilateral traumatic blood-aqueous barrier breakdown and may be of clinical importance.
Objective—To perform repeated anterior chamber fluorophotometry on both eyes of ophthalmologically normal dogs to measure fluorescein concentrations over a 5-day period and identify any change in the degree of anterior chamber fluorescence over time or difference between eyes.
Animals—9 healthy adult dogs (18 eyes).
Procedures—Each dog received an IV injection of 10% fluorescein solution, and anterior chamber fluorophotometry was performed 1 hour later on both eyes. This procedure was repeated at the same time each day for 5 consecutive days.
Results—A significant increase in fluorescein concentration was evident in the anterior chamber on day 5 in the right eye and days 2, 3, 4, and 5 in the left eye. There was no significant difference in concentration between the left and the right eyes on any day.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The increase in ocular fluorescein concentration in the study dogs was unlikely to be of clinical importance and is only pertinent for subsequent research studies. This is a limitation that should be considered when reporting fluorophotometry data as fluorescein concentration or as change in fluorescein concentration from baseline.
To investigate the effects of short-term and prolonged topical instillation of 0.1% diclofenac sodium, 0.5% ketorolac tromethamine, and 0.03% flurbiprofen sodium on corneal sensitivity (CS) in ophthalmologically normal cats.
12 healthy adult domestic shorthair cats.
In the first of 2 study phases, each cat received 0.1% diclofenac sodium, 0.5% ketorolac tromethamine, 0.03% flurbiprofen sodium, and saline (0.9% NaCl; control) solutions (1 drop [0.05 mL]/eye, q 5 min for 5 treatments) in a randomized order with a 2-day washout period between treatments. For each cat, an esthesiometer was used to measure CS before treatment initiation (baseline) and at 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after the last dose. There was a 2-day washout period between phases. The second phase was similar to the first, except each treatment was administered at a dosage of 1 drop/eye, twice daily for 5 days and CS was measured before treatment initiation and at 15 minutes and 24 and 48 hours after the last dose. The Friedman test was used to evaluate change in CS over time.
None of the 4 treatments had a significant effect on CS over time in either study phase.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results indicated that neither short-term nor prolonged topical instillation of 3 NSAID ophthalmic solutions had any effect on the CS of healthy cats. Given potential differences in cyclooxygenase expression between healthy and diseased eyes, further investigation of the effects of topical NSAID instillation in the eyes of cats with ocular surface inflammation is warranted.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of topical ophthalmic application of 0.5% proparacaine hydrochloride solution (PHCL; containing 0.01% benzalkonium chloride as preservative) on aerobic bacterial culture results for naturally occurring infected corneal ulcers in dogs.
DESIGN Clinical trial.
ANIMALS 25 client-owned dogs with infected corneal ulcers (24 unilaterally affected and 1 bilaterally affected; only 1 eye included/dog) examined between June 2008 and May 2011.
PROCEDURES Swab samples for aerobic bacterial culture were collected from the periphery of each corneal ulcer before and approximately 1 minute after topical ophthalmic application of 1 drop of PHCL. Numbers of aerobic bacterial species isolated from affected eyes were compared between sample collection points and between other variables (ie, side [left or right] of affected eye, prior treatments, and patient age, sex, and neuter status).
RESULTS There was no significant difference between numbers of aerobic bacterial species isolated per eye or overall aerobic bacterial culture results (positive or negative) before versus after PHCL application. Similarly, prior treatment had no significant effect on aerobic bacterial culture results for samples collected at either point. The most commonly isolated bacteria before and after PHCL application were Staphylococcus spp (40% and 48%, respectively), followed by Streptococcus spp (23% and 22%, respectively).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Topical ophthalmic application of PHCL did not significantly affect aerobic bacterial culture results for naturally occurring infected corneal ulcers in dogs as assessed in this study. Therefore, topical ophthalmic PHCL application could be useful in clinical settings prior to sample collection to relieve patient discomfort and to aid in sample acquisition without compromising aerobic bacterial culture results.
Objective—To evaluate aqueous humor flow rate in the eyes of clinically normal cats by use of a noninvasive technique successfully used in other species.
Animals—20 domestic shorthair cats.
Procedures—1 drop of 10% fluorescein sodium was instilled into both eyes of 5 cats every 5 minutes until 3 drops had been administered. Fluorophotometry was performed at 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 hours after fluorescein application to monitor fluorescein removal and determine aqueous humor flow rate. The 3-drop protocol was used for the remaining 15 cats, and fluorophotometry was performed at 5, 6, 7, and 8 hours after fluorescein application. Aqueous humor flow rates were calculated manually by use of established equations with minor adjustments to constant values to reflect feline anatomic features. Correlation coefficients and slope ratios were calculated to assess the legitimacy of the flow rate data. Paired t tests were calculated to assess for differences between the right and left eyes.
Results—Mean ± SD calculated aqueous humor flow rate in the right, left, and both eyes of the 20 cats was 5.94 ± 2.30 μL/min, 5.05 ± 2.06 μL/min, and 5.51 ± 2.21 μL/min, respectively. Correlation coefficients and slope ratios revealed that the aqueous humor flow rates were accurate. No significant differences in values for the right and left eyes were detected.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Accurate aqueous humor flow values for cats can be determined by use of the fluorophotometric technique evaluated in this study.
Objective—To determine the effects of ocular administration of ophthalmic 2% dorzolamide hydrochloride solution on aqueous humor flow rate (AHFR) and intraocular pressure (IOP) in clinically normal cats.
Animals—20 clinically normal domestic shorthair cats.
Procedures—Following an acclimation period, IOP was measured in each eye of all cats 5 times daily for 3 days to determine baseline values. Fifteen cats received 1 drop of 2% dorzolamide solution and 5 cats received 1 drop of control solution in each eye every 8 hours for 5 days (treatment phase). The IOP of each eye was measured 5 times during each day of the treatment phase. Prior to and after the treatment phase, AHFR in both eyes of each cat was measured via fluorophotometry.
Results—Prior to treatment, AHFR or IOP did not differ between the treatment and control groups. In dorzolamide-treated cats, mean AHFR after the treatment phase (3.47 ± 1.5 μL/min) was significantly lower than the value prior to treatment (5.90 ± 2.2 μL/min) and mean IOP during the treatment phase (11.1 ± 1.0 mm Hg) was significantly lower than the baseline mean IOP (14.9 ± 1.0 mm Hg). In the control group, IOP values did not differ before or during the treatment phase and AHFRs did not differ before and after the treatment phase.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ocular administration of 2% dorzolamide solution significantly decreased AHFR and IOP in clinically normal cats. Application of 2% dorzolamide solution may be an effective treatment in cats with glaucoma.
To determine the effect of topical ophthalmic administration of 0.005% latanoprost solution on aqueous humor flow rate (AHFR) and intraocular pressure (IOP) in ophthalmologically normal dogs.
12 adult Beagles.
In a masked crossover design involving two 10-day experimental periods separated by a 7-day washout period, dogs were randomly assigned to first receive latanoprost or artificial tears (control) solution and then the opposite treatment in the later experimental period. Each experimental period was divided into a baseline phase (days 1 to 3), baseline fluorophotometry assessment (day 4), treatment phase (1 drop of latanoprost or artificial tears solution administered twice daily in each eye on days 5 to 9 and once on day 10), and posttreatment fluorophotometry assessment (day 10). Measured fluorescein concentrations were used to calculate baseline and posttreatment AHFRs. The IOP was measured 5 times/d in each eye during baseline and treatment (days 5 to 9) phases.
Mean baseline and posttreatment AHFR values did not differ significantly in either experimental period (latanoprost or control). In the latanoprost period, mean IOP was significantly lower during treatment than at baseline; there was no difference in corresponding IOP values during the control period. In the latanoprost period, mean IOP was significantly higher on the first day of treatment than on subsequent treatment days.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
In ophthalmologically normal dogs, topical ophthalmic administration of 0.005% latanoprost solution significantly decreased IOP but did not affect AHFR. Thus, the ocular hypotensive effect of latanoprost did not appear to have been caused by a reduction in aqueous humor production. (Am J Vet Res 2019;80:498–504)
Case Description—A 9-year-old castrated male Bichon Frise was evaluated because of a 3-week history of a nonhealing corneal ulcer and corneal pigmentation of the left eye.
Clinical Findings—Ophthalmic examination of the left eye revealed conjunctival hyperemia, corneal neovascularization, corneal edema, corneal ulceration, and central corneal pigmentation. Intraocular structures of the left eye could not be visually examined because of the diffuse nature of the corneal lesions. The right eye had anterior cortical incipient cataracts, nuclear sclerosis, and an inactive chorioretinal scar.
Treatment and Outcome—Superficial lamellar keratectomy of the left eye was performed for both therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. Histologic evaluation of corneal biopsy specimens revealed dematiaceous fungal keratitis of the left eye, and topical administration of voriconazole was used to successfully resolve the keratitis. Seven months after diagnosis of dematiaceous fungal keratitis, the dog had no clinical signs or history of recurrence of the keratitis.
Clinical Relevance—Dematiaceous fungal keratitis should be considered as a possible cause of nonhealing corneal ulceration with heavy pigment deposition in dogs. Results suggested that lamellar keratectomy along with topical administration of voriconazole can be used successfully to treat dematiaceous fungal keratitis in dogs.
Case Description—5 cats from the same household were examined because of a sudden onset of tremors, obtundation, blindness, and dilated pupils. Approximately 12 hours prior to evaluation, the owner had attempted to treat the cats for suspected ear mite (Otodectes cynotis) infestation by aural administration of a dose of an ivermectin paste intended for oral administration to horses (approx 22 mg/cat; half of the dose was administered into each ear canal).
Clinical Findings—None of the cats had a menace response; all cats had dilated pupils and decreased pupillary light reflexes. Findings of fundic examination were unremarkable. Electroretinography was performed for 4 cats, and b-wave responses were identified as diminished. Toxicological assay results for serum samples from 2 cats confirmed the presence of ivermectin (450 and 610 μg/L).
Treatment and Outcome—All 5 cats made a complete recovery. Neurologic abnormalities resolved, electroretinographic responses improved, and vision was restored with no residual pathological changes detected during fundic examination.
Clinical Relevance—To the authors’ knowledge, the information reported here provided the first description of ophthalmic and electroretinographic findings in cats with ivermectin toxicosis resulting from transdermal administration. Clinical signs, including blindness, resolved with time, without additional medical intervention.