A 2-year-old 29.6-kg (65.2-lb) castrated male Coonhound was evaluated after sustaining acute trauma to the face as a result of being kicked by a horse. The patient had no pertinent medical history. On initial evaluation, facial asymmetry with considerable soft tissue swelling of the left dorsal maxillary region, a 10-mm laceration of the skin overlying the left maxilla, and bilateral epistaxis were present. Remaining findings on physical, neurologic, and oral examination were unremarkable.
The patient was monitored overnight, and appropriate analgesics were administered. The following day, facial swelling was improved, although a shallow concave depression
A 10-year-old 40.0-kg (88.1-lb) castrated male Staffordshire Terrier was examined because of acute onset of pain and swelling involving the rostral aspect of the left mandible. The owner had noticed gingivitis at the level of the left mandibular premolar teeth approximately 1 month previously. Otherwise, there was no history of inappetence, reluctance to prehend, signs of pain during mastication, or changes in attitude.
Apart from intermittent lameness involving the left thoracic limb, the dog was reported to be otherwise healthy. The referring veterinarian had prescribed amoxicillin trihydrate–clavulanate potassium (6.25 mg/kg [2.8 mg/lb], PO, q 12
An 8-year-old 16.8-kg (36.9-lb) castrated male mixed-breed dog was examined for evaluation and treatment of periodontal disease. Four years prior to this evaluation, root canal treatment of the left mandibular canine tooth was performed at another practice because of a complicated crown fracture of that tooth. No follow-up evaluations had been performed in the interim. With the exception of a previous sliding hiatal hernia that had been surgically corrected, the patient's medical history was unremarkable.
No abnormalities were detected on general physical examination. Oral examination revealed mild localized gingival enlargement and moderate gingivitis associated with
A 7-year-old 8.6-kg (18.9-lb) castrated male Pug was evaluated because of chronic nasal discharge. Respiratory signs, which started 3 weeks following ingestion of coffee beans, had been noticed for the past 2.5 years and had developed into respiratory distress. Six months after the onset of clinical signs, the patient developed a mucoid discharge from the left nostril. Rhinoscopy revealed hyperemia and mucus in the left nasal cavity. The mucoid discharge resolved temporarily with the use of amoxicillin–clavulanic acid (14.5 mg/kg [6.59 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h), but occasional treatment with neomycin–polymyxin B–dexamethasone ophthalmic drops (in
Objective—To document the short- and long-term outcomes of surgical endodontic treatment in dogs in a clinical setting.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—15 dogs that underwent surgical endodontic treatment.
Procedures—Medical records of dogs that underwent surgical endodontic treatment at 3 institutions from January 1995 to December 2011 were reviewed. Information extracted included signalment, history, initial clinical signs, physical and radiographic examination findings, treatment, and outcome. Outcome was determined through evaluation of the pre- and postoperative radiographs as well as clinical and radiographic findings at follow-up evaluations. On the basis of radiographic findings, treatment was considered successful if the periapical lesion and bone defect created by surgery had completely healed and no new root resorption was detected; a treatment was considered to have no evidence of failure if the periapical lesion remained the same or had not completely resolved and root resorption was static.
Results—15 dogs were treated by means of apicoectomy and retrograde filling following a failed or complicated orthograde root canal treatment. The mean long-term follow-up time was 15.2 months (range, 3 to 50 months). On radiographic evaluation, 10 of 15 dogs had successful resolution of the periapical disease; 5 dogs had no radiographic evidence of failure of endodontic treatment. All dogs were considered to have a successful clinical outcome.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Surgical endodontic treatment was an effective option for salvaging endodontically diseased but periodontally healthy teeth of dogs in which orthograde treatment was unsuccessful and nonsurgical retreatment was unlikely to succeed.
OBJECTIVE To describe the radiographic outcome of root canal treatment (RCT) of canine teeth of cats.
DESIGN Retrospective case series.
ANIMALS 32 cats with 37 canine teeth with complicated crown fractures that underwent RCT.
PROCEDURES Medical record databases of 5 referral veterinary hospitals were searched to identify cats that underwent RCT between 1998 and 2016. Only cats that had at least 1 follow-up examination during which radiographs were obtained of the treated canine tooth or teeth were included in the study. Dental radiographs obtained before and immediately after RCT and during all follow-up examinations were reviewed. Treatment was considered successful if the periodontal ligament space was within reference limits and preoperative external inflammatory root resorption (EIRR), if present, had stabilized. Treatment was considered to have no evidence of failure if preoperative EIRR had stabilized and preexisting periapical lucency was stable or decreased in size but had not resolved. Treatment was considered to have failed if periapical lucency or EIRR developed subsequent to RCT or preexisting periapical lucency increased in size or preoperative EIRR progressed following RCT.
RESULTS Follow-up time after RCT ranged from 3 to 72 months. The RCT was successful for 18 (49%) of the 37 treated teeth, had no evidence of failure for 12 (32%), and failed for 7 (19%). Preexisting EIRR and patient age ≥ 5 years significantly increased the rate of RCT failure.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that RCT was a viable treatment option to salvage endodontically diseased canine teeth in cats.
Objective—To identify risk factors associated with survival in dogs with nontonsillar oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) that were and were not treated with curative-intent surgery.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—31 dogs with OSCC.
Procedures—Medical records for dogs with OSCC that were not treated, or were treated with curative-intent surgery only between January 1990 and December 2010 were reviewed. For each dog, data regarding signalment, clinical stage, treatment, tumor recurrence, and survival time were obtained from the medical record, and archived biopsy specimens were evaluated to identify the histologic subtype of the tumor and extent of tumor-associated inflammation (TAI), perineural invasion (PNI), and lymphovascular invasion (LVI).
Results—Risk of death for the 21 dogs with OSCC that were surgically treated was decreased 91.4% (hazard ratio, 0.086; 95% confidence interval, 0.002 to 0.150), compared with that for the 10 dogs with OSCC that were not treated. The 1-year survival rate was 93.5% and 0% for dogs that were and were not surgically treated, respectively. Risk of death increased significantly with increasing TAI and increasing risk score (combination of TAI, PNI, and LVI). Tumor location, clinical stage, and histologic subtype were not associated with survival time.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that the prognosis for dogs with OSCC was excellent following surgical excision of the tumor. Risk of death increased with increasing TAI, and combining TAI, PNI, and LVI into a single risk score may be a useful prognostic indicator for dogs with OSCC.