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Objective—To evaluate outcome after intralesional injection of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) for treatment of superficial digital flexor (SDF) tendonitis in Thoroughbred racehorses.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—40 Thoroughbred racehorses.

Procedures—Medical records of racehorses with SDF tendonitis treated within 13 weeks after injury by intralesional injection of IGF-I (25 or 50 μg every other day for 4 or 5 treatments) were reviewed. Outcome was determined via analysis of race records, owner follow-up, and examination.

Results—Mean age of the horses was 3.1 years (range, 2 to 7 years), and time from injury to treatment ranged from 8 to 90 days. Mean ± SD approximate lesion length on admission was 15.6 ± 6.0 cm, and mean percentage cross-sectional area of the tendon affected was 26 ± 18%. Twenty-six of the 40 horses underwent desmotomy of the accessory ligament of the SDF tendon. Echolucency was reduced in 23 of 26 horses by the end of the treatment period. Twenty-one of 34 (62%) horses for which race data were available raced at least once after treatment, including 10 (30%) horses that raced between 1 and 4 times and 11 horses (32%) that raced ≥ 5 times. Thirteen of 28 (46%) horses had a recurrence of tendonitis or developed tendonitis elsewhere.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that in Thoroughbred racehorses with SDF tendonitis, intralesional injection of IGF-I led to a decrease in ultrasonographic lesion severity, but treated horses had only a moderate prognosis for return to racing.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine whether sensitivity of detecting an anomalous portosystemic blood vessel during operative mesenteric portography varied with patient positioning.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—34 dogs with a portosystemic shunt diagnosed via scintigraphy or surgery.

Procedure—Portograms were evaluated for a portosystemic blood vessel. Sensitivity was calculated from results obtained with dogs in left lateral, right lateral, and dorsal recumbency and from results obtained with dogs in 2 or 3 positions. Differences in sensitivity among positions and between 2 examiners were evaluated.

Results—Sensitivity was 85, 91, and 100% in dorsal, right lateral, and left lateral recumbency, respectively. Sensitivity was lower in dorsal recumbency than in left lateral recumbency, although differences were not significant. There was no significant difference between sensitivity of results obtained in dorsal and right lateral recumbency or right lateral and left lateral recumbency. Sensitivity for combined right lateral and dorsal positions was 97%, which was better than that in dorsal recumbency alone, although the difference was not significant. Because sensitivity in left lateral recumbency was 100%, there was no need to evaluate the improvement obtained by combining the result of this position with the results of other positions.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Results of mesenteric portography varied with patient positioning. The optimal position varied among patients but left lateral recumbency may be better and dorsal recumbency worse. Sensitivity may be improved by performing the test with the patient in orthogonal recumbent positions. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001; 219:1251–1253)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To assess the influence of meal ingestion and orally administered erythromycin on gallbladder volume in dogs.

Animals—22 healthy dogs.

Procedures—Ultrasonographically determined gallbladder dimensions in unsedated dogs were used to calculate volume. Measurements were recorded after food was withheld for 12 hours (time 0) and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after a 100-g meal without (n = 22) or with erythromycin (1.0 mg/kg [7], 2.5 mg/kg [7], and both dosages [8]). Gallbladder ejection fraction represented the percentage of volume change from time 0. Intraday and interday coefficients of variation determined operator repeatability and physiologic variation.

Results—We did not detect significant differences in gallbladder volume per unit of body weight between treatments at time 0 or in ejection fraction percentage within or between treatments. Median time 0 gallbladder volume was 0.6 mL/kg (range, 0.4 to 1.9) but was > 1.0 mL/kg in 3 of 22 (14%) dogs and ≤ 1.0 mL/kg in 19 of 22 (86%) dogs. Twenty dogs achieved an ejection fraction ≥ 25% with at least 1 treatment, but 2 dogs with a gallbladder volume ≤ 1.0 mL/kg at time 0 did not. Intraday and interday coefficients of variation were 18% and 25%, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Gallbladder volume ≤ 1.0 mL/kg at time 0 and ejection fraction ≥ 25% were typical. No treatment consistently induced greater gallbladder contraction. Dogs with a gallbladder volume > 1.0 mL/kg and ejection fraction < 25% may require a combined meal and erythromycin protocol.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To assess the potential of adipose-derived nucleated cell (ADNC) fractions to improve tendon repair in horses with collagenase-induced tendinitis.

Animals—8 horses.

Procedures—Collagenase was used to induce tendinitis in the superficial digital flexor tendon of 1 forelimb in each horse. Four horses were treated by injection of autogenous ADNC fractions, and 4 control horses were injected with PBS solution. Healing was compared by weekly ultrasonographic evaluation. Horses were euthanatized at 6 weeks. Gross and histologic evaluation of tendon structure, fiber alignment, and collagen typing were used to define tendon architecture. Biochemical and molecular analyses of collagen, DNA, and proteoglycan and gene expression of collagen type I and type III, decorin, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), and insulin-like growth factor-I were performed.

Results—Ultrasonography revealed no difference in rate or quality of repair between groups. Histologic evaluation revealed a significant improvement in tendon fiber architecture; reductions in vascularity, inflammatory cell infiltrate, and collagen type III formation; and improvements in tendon fiber density and alignment in ADNC-treated tendons. Repair sites did not differ in DNA, proteoglycan, or total collagen content. Gene expression of collagen type I and type III in treated and control tendons were similar. Gene expression of COMP was significantly increased in ADNC-injected tendons.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—ADNC injection improved tendon organization in treated tendons. Although biochemical and molecular differences were less profound, tendons appeared architecturally improved after ADNC injection, which was corroborated by improved tendon COMP expression. Use of ADNC in horses with tendinitis appears warranted.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To determine whether body weight, age, or sex was associated with ultrasonographically determined adrenal gland thickness (AT) in dogs with non-adrenal gland illness.


Retrospective cross-sectional study.


266 dogs (22 sexually intact and 119 castrated males and 19 sexually intact and 106 spayed females representing 12 breeds) with non-adrenal gland illness.


Thickness of the caudal pole of the left and right adrenal glands was measured on longitudinal ultrasonographic images. Dogs were stratified into age and body weight categories to investigate associations with AT.


AT was significantly lower in dogs that weighed ≤ 12 kg (26.4 lb) than in dogs that weighed > 12 kg and left AT increased with age. Both left and right AT were larger in male than in female dogs that weighed > 12 to ≤ 20 kg, and left AT was larger in male than in female dogs that weighed > 20 to ≤ 30 kg.


Results suggested that body weight, age, and sex were significantly associated with AT, indicating that these variables should be considered when evaluating AT in dogs with non-adrenal gland illness and when developing reference intervals for AT in dogs. Further, findings indicated that dogs with non-adrenal gland illness that weigh ≤ 12 kg should have an AT no greater than 0.62 cm, whereas dogs that weigh > 12 kg should have an AT no greater than 0.72 cm.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine risk, clinical features, and treatment responses for gallbladder disorders in Shetland Sheepdogs.

Design—Retrospective case-control study.

Animals—38 Shetland Sheepdogs with gallbladder disease.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for signalment, history, physical findings, laboratory results, imaging features, coexistent illnesses, histologic findings, treatments, and survival rates.

Results—Mature dogs with gastrointestinal signs were predisposed (odds ratio, 7.2) to gallbladder disorders. Gallbladder mucocele was confirmed in 25 dogs. Concurrent problems included pancreatitis, hyperlipidemia, corticosteroid excess, hypothyroidism, protein-losing nephropathy, diabetes mellitus, cholelithiasis, and gallbladder dysmotility. Mortality rate was 68% with and 32% without bile peritonitis. Nonsurvivors had high WBC and neutrophil count and low potassium concentration. Although preprandial hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and high serum liver enzyme activities were common, gallbladder disease was serendipitously discovered in 11 of 38 dogs. Histologic examination (n = 20 dogs) revealed gallbladder cystic mucosal hyperplasia in 20 dogs, cholecystitis in 16, periportal hepatitis in 9, and vacuolar hepatopathy in 7. Surgery included cholecystectomy (n = 17) and cholecystoenterostomy (4). In 1 hyperlipidemic dog without clinical signs, gallbladder mucocele resolved 6 months after beginning use of a fat-restricted diet and ursodeoxycholic acid.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Shetland Sheepdogs are predisposed to gallbladder disorders, with mucoceles and concurrent dyslipidemia or dysmotility in many affected dogs. Most dogs were without clinical signs during mucocele development. Low survival rate after cholecystectomy in clinically affected dogs suggested that preemptive surgical interventions may be a more appropriate treatment strategy.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To estimate the number of dogs required to find linkage to heritable traits of hip dysplasia in dogs from an experimental pedigree.

Animals—147 Labrador Retrievers, Greyhounds, and their crossbreed offspring.

Procedure—Labrador Retrievers with hip dysplasia were crossed with unaffected Greyhounds. Age at detection of femoral capital ossification, distraction index (DI), hip joint dorsolateral subluxation (DLS) score, and hip joint osteoarthritis (OA) were recorded. Power to find linkage of a single marker to a quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling 100% of the variation in a dysplastic trait in the backcross dogs was determined.

Results—For the DI at the observed effect size, recombination fraction of 0.05, and heterozygosity of 0.75, 35 dogs in the backcross of the F1 to the Greyhound generation would yield linkage at a power of 0.8. For the DLS score, 35 dogs in the backcross to the Labrador Retriever generation would be required for linkage at the same power. For OSS, 45 dogs in the backcross to the founding Labrador Retrievers would yield linkage at the same power. Fewer dogs were projected to be necessary to find linkage to hip OA. Testing for linkage to the DLS at 4 loci simultaneously, each controlling 25% of the phenotypic variation, yielded an overall power of 0.7.

Conclusions and Clinical Significance—Based on this conservative single-marker estimate, this pedigree has the requisite power to find microsatellites linked to susceptibility loci for hip dysplasia and hip OA by breeding a reasonable number of backcross dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2003;222:418–424)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research