Objective—To determine the outcome of and prognostic
indicators for dogs and cats with pneumoperitoneum
and no history of penetrating trauma.
Animals—43 dogs and 11 cats.
Procedure—Medical records of dogs and cats with
radiographic evidence of pneumoperitoneum and no
history of penetrating trauma were reviewed.
Information collected included signalment, previous
medical problems, initial complaint, duration of illness,
physical examination findings, radiographic findings,
laboratory abnormalities, abdominocentesis
results, bacterial culture results, concurrent diseases,
hospitalization time, and outcome. Abdominal radiographs
were reviewed, and radiographic severity of
pneumoperitoneum was classified. For those animals
that underwent exploratory laparotomy, time from
admission to surgery and results of histologic examination
of biopsy specimens were recorded.
Results—24 (44%) animals survived and were discharged
from the hospital, but none of the variables
examined was associated with whether animals survived.
Rupture of the gastrointestinal tract was the
cause of pneumoperitoneum in 40 animals. However,
cause and location of gastrointestinal tract rupture
was not associated with whether animals survived.
Twenty-three of 40 (58%) animals that underwent
exploratory laparotomy survived, compared with only
1 of 14 animals that did not undergo surgery.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that pneumoperitoneum in dogs and cats without
any history of penetrating trauma is most commonly
associated with rupture of the gastrointestinal tract
and requires immediate surgical intervention. Even
when appropriate treatment is instituted, the shortterm
prognosis is only fair. (J Am Vet Med Assoc
Objective—To evaluate a method of aerobic bacteriologic culture of epidermal collarette specimens from dogs with superficial pyoderma and compare results with those for aerobic bacteriologic culture of abdominal skin specimens in healthy dogs.
Animals—22 dogs with epidermal collarettes and 24 healthy dogs.
Procedure–Dry sterile cotton swabs were rolled across epidermal collarettes or hairless areas of abdominal skin in healthy dogs and submitted for aerobic bacteriologic culture. Hemolytic colonies of gram-positive–staining cocci were tested for catalase production, and if results were positive, a coagulase test was performed. Colonies with coagulase activity were tested for the ability to ferment mannitol. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on all Staphylococcus spp that were isolated.
Results–S intermedius was isolated from collarettes in 18 of 22 dogs with superficial pyoderma but not from healthy dogs. Estimated sensitivity and specificity of the culture method were 81.8% and 100%, respectively. There were no significant differences in the ability to culture S intermedius, the number of S intermedius isolates without resistance to antimicrobials, and the number of S intermedius isolates resistant to penicillin G when comparing dogs with superficial pyoderma for the first time and dogs with recurrent pyoderma, dogs that did or did not receive concurrent antimicrobials, and dogs with and without underlying allergic disease.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance–Bacteriologic culture of epidermal collarette specimens was a simple and reliable method for identification of S intermedius in dogs with superficial pyoderma, regardless of history of pyoderma or current antimicrobial use. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;226:904–908)