Objective—To determine the effects of pretreatment
with α-linolenic acid, an omega-3 polyunsaturated
fatty acid, on equine synovial explants challenged
with lipopolysaccharide (LPS).
Animals—8 mature mixed-breed horses (4 mares
and 4 geldings).
Procedure—Synovial explants were assigned to
receive 1 of 7 concentrations of α-linolenic acid, ranging
from 0 to 300 µg/mL. At each concentration, half
of the explants were controls and half were challenged
with 0.003 µg of LPS as a model of synovial
inflammation. Cell inflammatory response was evaluated
by measurement of prostaglandin E2 production
via an ELISA. Synovial cell viability, function, histomorphologic
characteristics, and cell membrane composition
were evaluated by use of trypan blue dye
exclusion, hexuronic acid assay for hyaluronic acid,
objective microscopic scoring, and high-performance
liquid chromatography, respectively.
Results—Challenge with LPS significantly increased
production of prostaglandin E2 and decreased production
of hyaluronic acid. Treatment with α-linolenic
acid at the highest dose inhibited prostaglandin E2
production. Cell viability and histomorphologic characteristics
were not altered by treatment with
α-linolenic acid or LPS challenge. Treatment with
α-linolenic acid increased the percentage of this fatty
acid in the explant cell membranes.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that investigation of α-linolenic acid as an anti-inflammatory
medication for equine synovitis is warranted.
(Am J Vet Res 2005;66:1503–1508)
OBJECTIVE To report the outcomes of horses with suspected nephrosplenic entrapment (NSE) of the large colon treated by IV phenylephrine administration and exercise with and without trocarization (ie, medical management).
DESIGN Retrospective, observational study.
ANIMALS 134 horses.
PROCEDURES Electronic medical records were searched to identify horses that underwent medical management for suspected NSE at a veterinary teaching hospital between 1995 and 2014. Demographic information, physical and ultrasonographic examination findings, treatment information (including the number of times the treatment was performed and patient response), surgical findings if applicable, complications, and patient outcome were recorded. Descriptive statistics were reported.
RESULTS 72 horses had suspected NSE that resolved with medical treatment; 59 of 62 horses underwent laparotomy when medical management failed, and 3 were euthanized without surgery. Twenty-five of the 59 horses had confirmed NSE that was surgically corrected, and 34 had lesions other than or in addition to NSE. All horses that had surgically corrected NSE and 18 of 34 horses that had other lesions survived to hospital discharge. The odds of resolution of NSE with medical management were greater for horses that underwent ≤ 2 (vs > 2) treatments. The treatment success rate for horses that underwent trocarization was not greater than that for horses that did not have the procedure.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Suspected NSE resolved with the described medical management for most horses. However, results indicated the potential for misdiagnosis was high. Timely surgical intervention is recommended for horses that fail to respond to medical treatment.
To evaluate the effect of exposure to a balanced electrolyte solution (BES), or equine abdominal fat on the knot-holding capacity (KHC), relative knot security (RKS), weight, and volume of forwarder knots versus surgeon's knots.
315 knots tied and tested in vitro.
United States Pharmacopeia size-3 polyglactin 910 suture exposed to air (dry [control]), equine abdominal fat (fat-exposed), or BES (BES-exposed) was used to tie forwarder knots with 2, 3, and 4 throws and surgeon's knots with 5, 6, 7, and 8 throws. A universal materials testing machine was used to test the tensile strength of suture and knots to failure, and the KHC, RKS, weight, and volume of knots were determined.
Forwarder knots had significantly higher KHC and RKS and lower volume, compared with surgeons’ knots. Forwarder knots tied with fat-exposed suture had greater weight, but not volume, than did forwarder knots tied with dry or BES-exposed suture with the same number of throws.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results indicated that forwarder knots were superior to surgeon's knots when configured as start knots intended for continuous lines of suture. Exposure to media did not negatively affect mechanical or physical properties of forwarder knots and may improve specific biomechanical functions, including KHC and RKS.