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- Author or Editor: Amelia R. Woolums x
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Objective—To characterize cytokine messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in intranasally vaccinated calves after bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) challenge.
Animals—Twelve 8- to 12-week-old calves.
Procedures—Calves received modified-live BRSV vaccine (vaccinated) or spent tissue culture medium (mock-vaccinated) intranasally, followed by challenge 30 days later with BRSV, or mock challenge with spent tissue culture medium (mock-challenge controls). Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) mRNA was measured in lungs, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid cells, pharyngeal tonsils, and tracheobronchial lymph nodes, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) mRNA was measured in lungs and BAL fluid cells by reverse transcriptase-competitive polymerase chain reaction assay.
Results—Resistance to clinical signs of disease was conferred in vaccinated calves. Expression of TNF-α mRNA in lungs and BAL fluid cells was higher in mock-vaccinated calves than control or vaccinated calves. In the lung, IL-4 mRNA expression was higher in vaccinated calves than control or mock-vaccinated calves. In pharyngeal tonsils, expression of mRNA for IL-4 and IFN-γ was higher in mock-vaccinated calves than control calves. In tracheobronchial lymph nodes, IFN-γ mRNA expression was higher in mock-vaccinated calves than vaccinated calves.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although vaccinated calves had decreased clinical signs of disease after BRSV challenge, compared with mock-vaccinated calves, this difference was not related to a T helper type 1 bias, as determined by increased expression of interferon-γ mRNA relative to interleukin-4 mRNA in lungs, BAL fluid cells, or tracheobronchial lymph nodes of vaccinated calves. Pulmonary inflammation was decreased in vaccinated calves as determined by decreased expression of TNF-α mRNA. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:725–733)
Objective—To identify factors associated with renal insufficiency in colic- or colitis-affected horses with high serum creatinine (SCr) concentrations evaluated at a referral hospital.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—167 colic- or colitis-affected horses (88 represented a random sample [hospital population], and 79 had high SCr concentration at initial evaluation [study population]).
Procedure—Medical records were reviewed. Data collected included signalment; physical examination, clinicopathologic, and diagnostic findings; and outcome. The study population was categorized on the basis of whether SCr concentration did (AR group; n = 53) or did not (PA group; 26) normalize within 72 hours of fluid therapy. Characteristics of the study and hospital populations were compared.
Results—Males and Quarter Horses were significantly overrepresented in the study population. Compared with the hospital population, study-population horses were significantly more likely to have colitis, gastric reflux, and diarrhea at initial evaluation. Initial mean SCr concentration in the PA group was significantly higher than the AR group; identification of gastric reflux, abnormal rectal examination findings, and hypochloremia were significantly associated with persistent azotemia after 72 hours of fluid therapy. Compared with the AR group, PA group horses were 3 times as likely to die or be euthanized.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In colic- or colitis-affected horses, factors associated with renal insufficiency included gastric reflux, abnormal rectal examination findings, or hypochloremia initially; prognosis for horses in which azotemia resolves within 72 hours of treatment appears to be better than for horses with persistent azotemia.
OBJECTIVE To determine herd-level risk factors for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in nursing beef calves.
DESIGN Matched case-control study.
SAMPLE 84 cow-calf operations in Nebraska, North Dakota, and South Dakota.
PROCEDURES Case herds were herds that treated at least 5% of the calf crop for BRD prior to weaning. Control herds were herds that treated < 0.5% of the calf crop for BRD prior to weaning. Each case herd was matched with 2 control herds on the basis of veterinary practice and enrollment year. Herd owners or managers were interviewed by telephone, and characteristics and practices associated with case status were determined by multivariable conditional logistic regression.
RESULTS 30 case herds and 54 control herds were evaluated. Increasing herd size, frequent pasture movement for intensive grass management (intensive grazing), and use of estrus-synchronization programs were significantly associated with herd status. The odds of being a case herd for herds with 150 to 499 cows was 7.9 times and that for herds with ≥ 500 cows was 12 times, compared with the odds of being a case herd for herds with < 150 cows. The odds of being a case herd for herds that used intensive grazing was 3.3 times that for herds that did not use intensive grazing. The odds of being a case herd for herds that used an estrus-synchronization program was 4.5 times that for herds that did not use an estrus-synchronization program.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Management practices can be associated with an increase in the BRD incidence in nursing beef calves. Modification of management practices may decrease BRD incidence in nursing calves for herds in which it is a problem.
Objective—To determine whether a single intranasal dose of modified-live bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) vaccine protects calves from BRSV challenge and characterize cell-mediated immune response in calves following BRSV challenge.
Animals—13 conventionally reared 4- to 6-week-old Holstein calves.
Procedure—Calves received intranasal vaccination with modified live BRSV vaccine (VC-group calves; n = 4) or mock vaccine (MC-group calves; 6) 1 month before BRSV challenge; unvaccinated control-group calves (n = 3) underwent mock challenge. Serum virus neutralizing (VN) antibodies were measured on days –30, -14, 0, and 7 relative to BRSV challenge; nasal swab specimens were collected for virus isolation on days 0 to 7. At necropsy examination on day 7, tissue specimens were collected for measurement of BRSV-specific interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production. Tissue distribution of CD3+ T and BLA.36+ B cells was evaluated by use of immunohistochemistry.
Results—The MC-group calves had significantly higher rectal temperatures, respiratory rates, and clinical scores on days 5 to 7 after BRSV challenge than VCgroup calves. No difference was seen between distributions of BRSV in lung tissue of VC- and MC-group calves. Production of BRSV-specific IFN-γ was increased in tissue specimens from VC-group calves, compared with MC- and control-group calves. Virusspecific IFN-γ production was highest in the mediastinal lymph node of VC-group calves. Increased numbers of T cells were found in expanded bronchialassociated lymphoid tissue and airway epithelium of VC-group calves.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—An intranasal dose of modified-live BRSV vaccine can protect calves against virulent BRSV challenge 1 month later. ( Am J Vet Res 2004;65:363–372)
Objective—To characterize the prevalence of Mycoplasma bovis infection in backgrounding and stocker cattle operations and compare bacteriologic culture with PCR assay for detection of M bovis.
Design—Prospective descriptive study.
Animals—432 calves, 3 to 9 months old, from 9 operations.
Procedures—2 nasal swab specimens were collected from each calf. Swab specimens were evaluated via bacteriologic culture and PCR assay for organisms of the class Mollicutes and M bovis. Culture results were considered negative if no growth occurred within 21 days. Positive results were indicated by characteristic colony formation with PCR assay confirmation. Deoxyribonucleic acid was extracted from 1 swab specimen for direct PCR assay for Mollicutes and M bovis.
Results—Of 432 calves, 374 (87%) had positive results for Mollicutes via PCR assay and 63 (15%) via culture. Seven (2%) calves had positive results for M bovis via PCR assay and 10 (2%) via culture. Prevalence of Mollicutes at the farm level ranged from 54% to 100% via PCR assay and from 0% to 59% via culture. Prevalence of M bovis at the farm level ranged from 0% to 4% via PCR assay and from 0% to 6% via culture. Calves that shed M bovis were significantly more likely to have a fever than were calves that did not shed M bovis.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—M bovis was detected at a low level in recently purchased backgrounded and stocker calves in Georgia. Although slightly more infected calves were detected via culture and PCR assay together, PCR assay appeared to accurately identify M bovis at the farm level.
Objective—To study the local immune response of calves to bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infection with emphasis on IgE production and cytokine gene expression in pulmonary lymph.
Animals—Twelve 6- to 8-week-old Holstein bull calves. Six similar control calves were mock infected to obtain control data.
Procedure—Lymphatic cannulation surgery was performed on 12 calves to create a long-term thoracic lymph fistula draining to the exterior. Cannulated calves were exposed to virulent BRSV by aerosol. Lymph fluid collected daily was assayed for BRSV and isotype-specific IgE antibody, total IgG, IgA, IgM, and protein concentrations. Interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin- 2 (IL-2), and interferon-γ were semi-quantitated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Cell counts and fluorescence-activated cell scanner (FACSCAN) analysis of T-cell subsets were performed on lymph cells.
Results—Calves had clinical signs of respiratory tract disease during days 5 to 10 after infection and shed virus. Bovine respiratory syncytial virus-specific IgE in infected calves was significantly increased over baseline on day 9 after infection. Mean virus-specific IgE concentrations strongly correlated with increases in severity of clinical disease (r = 0.903). Expression of IL-2, IL-4, and interferon-γ was variably present in infected and control calves, with IL-4 expression most consistent during early infection.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Infection with BRSV was associated with production of BRSV-specific IgE, and IL-4 message was commonly found in lymph cells of infected calves. This finding supports the concept that BRSV-induced pathophysiology involves a T helper cell type-2 response. Effective therapeutic and prophylactic strategies could, therefore, be developed using immunomodulation to shift the immune response more toward a T helper cell type-1 response. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61:291–298)
Objective—To evaluate injection-site reactions and serum antibody titers in cattle vaccinated with a clostridial vaccine administered SC or via needle-free transdermal injection.
Animals—Sixteen 11-to 12-month-old Herefords.
Procedures—Cattle in 2 groups were vaccinated on days 0 and 28 with a commercially available multivalent clostridial vaccine administered SC or transdermally Injection sites and serum antibody titers were evaluated at several time points after vaccination. Serum antibody titers against Clostridium perfringens beta toxin, Clostridium novyi alpha toxin, and Clostridium septicum alpha toxin were determined with an ELISA; Clostridium sordellii lethal toxin titers were determined with a toxin neutralization assay.
Results—Firm injection site swellings developed in cattle vaccinated via either route; however, at several observation times, swellings were significantly smaller in cattle vaccinated transdermally. Serum titers against C perfringens beta toxin and C septicum alpha toxin did not differ significantly between groups after vaccination; serum titers against C novyi alpha toxin were not significantly different between groups, except on days 10 and 56, when they were significantly higher in cattle vaccinated SC. Titers against C sordellii lethal toxin were significantly higher in cattle vaccinated SC on several days after vaccination, but titers were not significantly different after day 49.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Transdermal vaccination of cattle resulted in serum antibody titers that were similar to those induced via SC vaccination and caused injection-site reactions that were significantly smaller. Transdermal vaccination may be an effective technique for vaccinating cattle against clostridial diseases while minimizing local reactions that often develop after clostridial vaccination.
Objective—To compare immune responses following modified-live virus (MLV) vaccination at weaning after intranasal or SC administration of an MLV vaccine to beef calves at 2 or 70 days of age.
Procedures—Calves were allocated to 1 of 5 groups. The IN2 (n = 37) and IN70 (37) groups received an MLV vaccine containing bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) types 1 and 2, bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), and parainfluenza 3 virus intranasally and a Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida bacterin SC at median ages of 2 and 70 days, respectively. The SC2 (n = 36) and SC70 (37) groups received a 7-way MLV vaccine containing BHV1, BVDV1, BVDV2, BRSV, parainfluenza 3 virus, M haemolytica, and P multocida SC at median ages of 2 and 70 days, respectively; the control group (37) remained unvaccinated until weaning. All calves received the 7-way MLV vaccine SC at median ages of 217 (weaning) and 231 days. Serum neutralizing antibody (SNA) titers against BHV1, BVDV1, and BRSV and intranasal IgA concentrations were determined at median ages of 2, 70, 140, 217, and 262 days. Cell-mediated immunity (CMI) against BHV1, BRSV, BVDV1, and P multocida was determined for 16 calves/group.
Results—At median ages of 140 and 217 days, BVDV1 SNA titers were significantly higher for the SC70 group than those for the other groups. Intranasal IgA concentrations and CMI increased over time for all groups. Vaccination at weaning increased SNA titers and CMI in all groups.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—SC administration of an MLV vaccine to 70-day-old calves significantly increased BVDV1 antibody titers before weaning.
To determine anti-bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) antibody titers for nasal secretions and serum from beef calves following administration of a modified-live (MLV) BRSV vaccine.
60 healthy newborn purebred beef calves.
Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: intranasal (IN)-SC (IN MLV BRSV vaccine within 24 hours of birth and SC MLV BRSV vaccine at 2 months of age), SC-IN (SC MLV BRSV vaccine within 24 hours of birth and IN MLV BRSV vaccine at 2 months of age), or NO-IN (no vaccine within 24 hours of birth and IN MLV BRSV vaccine at 2 months of age). Nasal secretion and serum samples were collected for determination of anti-BRSV antibodies within 24 hours of birth and 2 and 6 months of age.
Titers of anti-BRSV IgA antibodies in nasal secretions and BRSV neutralizing antibodies in serum were similar among groups at each sampling time. Within 24 hours of birth, nasal anti-BRSV IgA titers were negligible. At 2 months, mean nasal anti-BRSV IgA titers for calves in IN-SC, SC-IN, and NO-IN groups were 192.84, 224.49, and 114.71, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Concentrations of anti-BRSV IgA antibodies in the nasal secretions and BRSV neutralizing antibodies in the serum of young beef calves following an MLV BRSV vaccine protocol that consisted of IN or SC vaccine within 24 hours of birth and vice versa at 2 months of age were not different from that following only an IN MLV BRSV vaccine at 2 months of age. However, the lack of any differences may have been attributed to other factors. (Am J Vet Res 2021;82:746–751)