Objective—To describe the use of hydropulsion with sterile isotonic buffered ophthalmic solution (ie, eyewash) for the treatment of superficial corneal foreign bodies in veterinary patients and evaluate signalment, clinical findings, and outcomes following the procedure.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—11 dogs, 2 cats, and 2 horses.
Procedures—Medical records were retrospectively reviewed to identify patients that underwent hydropulsion treatment for a superficial, nonpenetrating corneal foreign body confirmed by ophthalmic examination. Data regarding signalment, reason for evaluation, ocular diagnoses, and treatment were recorded. Hydropulsion was performed with a 6-mL syringe filled with eyewash solution and a 25-gauge needle with the needle tip removed. Owners and referring veterinarians of patients that did not have a recheck examination recorded were contacted by telephone for follow-up information.
Results—The corneal foreign body was an incidental finding in 3 of 15 patients. The most common clinical signs included blepharospasm, conjunctival hyperemia, and corneal vascularization. Hydropulsion was successful for foreign body removal in all 15 cases. No complications were observed during or following the procedure. In the 9 patients that had a follow-up examination, the cornea tested negative for retention of topically applied fluorescein (with a mean of 6.3 days from treatment to follow-up). At the time of last follow-up examination or telephone follow-up, no patients were reported to have clinical signs of ocular discomfort or corneal opacity associated with the affected site.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In these patients, hydropulsion was easily performed with readily available materials and was successful for the removal of superficial corneal foreign bodies with no adverse effects.
Objective—To determine the characteristics of, prevalence of, and risk factors for corneal pigmentation (CP) in Pugs.
Design—Prospective cross-sectional study.
Animals—295 Pugs > 16 weeks old.
Procedures—Ophthalmic examination of the anterior segment of each eye was performed, including determination of tear film characteristics (Schirmer tear test and tear film breakup time) and corneal sensitivity. Digital photographs of the head and each eye were obtained. Corneal pigmentation of eyes was graded as absent, very mild, mild, moderate, or severe. Signalment and medical history information and American Kennel Club registration status were recorded.
Results—CP was detected in at least 1 eye of 243 of the 295 (82.4%) Pugs; CP was typically very mild or mild. Detection of CP was not significantly associated with coat color, age, eyelid conformation, or tear film characteristics but was significantly associated with sex of dogs. The severity of CP was not significantly associated with American Kennel Club registration status or age, but was significantly associated with sex, tear film characteristics, and coat color. Iris hypoplasia was detected in 72.1% of the Pugs. Iris-to-iris persistent pupillary membranes were detected in 85.3% of the Pugs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Prevalence of CP in Pugs in this study was high. Unexpectedly high prevalences of iris hypoplasia and persistent pupillary membranes were also identified. The condition identified in these Pugs was a pigmentary keratopathy, rather than pigmentary keratitis or corneal melanosis. This condition may have a genetic basis, and further studies are warranted to determine etiology.
OBJECTIVE To determine tear film concentrations of doxycycline in ophthalmologically normal dogs following oral doxycycline administration.
DESIGN Crossover study.
ANIMALS 10 privately owned dolichocephalic or mesaticephalic dogs free of ophthalmic disease.
PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned to receive doxycycline hyclate first at 5 mg/kg (2.3 mg/lb) or 10 mg/kg (4.5 mg/lb), PO, every 12 hours for 5 days, beginning on day 1. Doxycycline was administered 1 hour prior to feeding. Tear samples were collected from days 1 through 10 approximately 3 hours after the morning dose was administered. Following a 3-week washout period, dogs received the alternative dose in the same conditions. Doxycycline concentration in tear samples from 1 eye (same eye used for both sessions) was measured via liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry and compared between the 2 doxycycline doses.
RESULTS Doxycycline was detected in tear samples of all dogs from days 1 through 10 for both doxycycline doses. Median peak doxycycline concentrations for the 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg doses were 2.19 ng/mL on day 3 and 4.32 ng/mL on day 4, respectively. Concentrations differed significantly with time, but this difference was not influenced by dose, dose order, or eye. A significant positive correlation was identified between doxycycline concentration and body weight (r = 0.22).
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Detectable doxycycline concentrations were achieved in the tear film of ophthalmologically normal dogs following oral administration of doxycycline at 5 or 10 mg/kg, every 12 hours. Dose had no significant effect on tear film concentration of the drug.
Objective—To determine types and frequency of ophthalmic lesions detected in neonatal foals evaluated for nonophthalmic disease at 3 veterinary referral hospitals and to investigate associations between systemic and ophthalmic diseases in these foals.
Design—Prospective cross-sectional study.
Animals—70 foals < 30 days old.
Procedures—Complete ophthalmic examinations were performed. Signalment, clinical signs, mentation during ophthalmic examination, results of clinicopathologic tests, and diagnosis of systemic disease were recorded. Descriptive data analysis including a χ2 test for associations was performed.
Results—Most foals (39/70 [55.7%]) with systemic disease had ≥ 1 ophthalmic lesion detected. Of the 39 foals with ophthalmic disease, 24 (61.5%) had potentially vision-threatening lesions. Clinically important abnormalities included conjunctival hyperemia or episcleral injection (30/70 [42.9%]), uveitis (18/70 [25.7%]), ulcerative keratitis (13/70 [18.6%]), nonulcerative keratitis (10/70 [14.3%]), entropion (8/70 [11.4%]), retinal hemorrhage (8/70 [11.4%]), and cataract (6/70 [8.6%]). Foals with sepsis were significantly more likely to have uveitis than were those without sepsis. Foals with sepsis and uveitis were also significantly less likely to survive to discharge than were foals that had sepsis without uveitis. Acquired ophthalmic disease (detected in 37/70 [52.9%] foals) was significantly more common than congenital ophthalmic disease (detected in 9/70 [12.9%]).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ophthalmic lesions were detected in 55.7% of neonatal foals with systemic disease. Acquired ophthalmic disease was more commonly detected than congenital ophthalmic disease. Foals with sepsis were more likely to have uveitis than were foals without sepsis. A complete ophthalmic examination is indicated in neonatal foals evaluated for systemic disease.