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  • Author or Editor: Amanda M. Floerchinger x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of protein binding on the pharmacokinetics and distribution from plasma to interstitial fluid (ISF) of cephalexin and cefpodoxime proxetil in dogs.

Animals—6 healthy dogs.

Procedures—In a crossover study design, 25 mg of cephalexin/kg or 9.6 mg of cefpodoxime/kg was administered orally. Blood samples were collected before (time 0) and 0.33, 0.66, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, and 24 hours after treatment. An ultrafiltration device was used in vivo to collect ISF at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, and 24 hours. Plasma and ISF concentrations were analyzed with high-pressure liquid chromatography. Plasma protein binding was measured by use of a microcentrifugation technique.

Results—Mean plasma protein binding for cefpodoxime and cephalexin was 82.6% and 20.8%, respectively. Mean ± SD values for cephalexin in plasma were determined for peak plasma concentration (Cmax, 31.5 ± 11.5 μg/mL), area under the time-concentration curve (AUC, 155.6 ± 29.5 μg•h/mL), and terminal half-life (T½, 4.7 ± 1.2 hours); corresponding values in ISF were 16.3 ± 5.8 μg/mL, 878 ± 21.0 μg•h/mL, and 3.2 ± 0.6 hours, respectively. Mean ± SD values for cefpodoxime in plasma were 33.0 ± 6.9 μg/mL (Cmax), 282.8 ± 44.0 μg•h/mL (AUC), and 5.7 ± 0.9 hours (T1/2); corresponding values in ISF were 4.3 ± 2.0 μg/mL, 575 ± 174 μg•h/mL, and 10.4 ± 3.3 hours, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Tissue concentration of protein-unbound cefpodoxime was similar to that of the protein-unbound plasma concentration. Cefpodoxime remained in tissues longer than did cephalexin.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of feeding a food with coconut oil and supplemental l-carnitine, lipoic acid, lysine, leucine, and fiber on weight loss and maintenance in dogs.

Design—Prospective clinical study

Animals—50 overweight dogs.

Procedures—The study consisted of 2 trials. During trial 1, 30 dogs were allocated to 3 groups (10 dogs/group) to be fed a dry maintenance dog food to maintain body weight (group 1) or a dry test food at the same amount on a mass (group 2) or energy (group 3) basis as group 1. During trial 2, each of 20 dogs was fed the test food and caloric intake was adjusted to maintain a weight loss rate of 1% to 2%/wk (weight loss phase). Next, each dog was fed the test food in an amount calculated to maintain the body weight achieved at the end of the weight loss phase (weight maintenance phase). Dogs were weighed and underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry monthly. Metabolomic data were determined before (baseline) and after each phase.

Results—During trial 1, dogs in groups 2 and 3 lost significantly more weight than did those in group 1. During trial 2, dogs lost a significant amount of body weight and fat mass but retained lean body mass (LBM) during the weight loss phase and continued to lose body fat but gained LBM during the weight maintenance phase. Evaluation of metabolomic data suggested that fat metabolism and LBM retention were improved from baseline for dogs fed the test food.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that feeding overweight dogs the test food caused weight loss and improvements in body condition during the weight-maintenance phase, possibly because the food composition improved energy metabolism.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of feeding a food with coconut oil and supplemental l-carnitine, lysine, leucine, and fiber on weight loss and maintenance in cats.

Design—Prospective clinical study.

Animals—50 overweight cats.

Procedures—The study consisted of 2 trials. During trial 1, 30 cats were allocated to 3 groups (10 cats/group) to be fed a dry maintenance cat food to maintain body weight (group 1) or a dry test food at the same amount on a mass (group 2) or energy (group 3) basis as group 1. During trial 2, each of 20 cats was fed the test food and caloric intake was adjusted to maintain a weight loss rate of 1%/wk (weight loss phase). Next, each cat was fed the test food in an amount calculated to maintain the body weight achieved at the end of the weight loss phase (weight maintenance phase). Cats were weighed and underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry monthly. Metabolomic data were determined before (baseline) and after each phase.

Results—During trial 1, cats in groups 2 and 3 lost significantly more weight than did those in group 1. During trial 2, cats lost a significant amount of body weight and fat mass but retained lean body mass during the weight loss phase and continued to lose body weight and fat mass but gained lean body mass during the weight maintenance phase. Evaluation of metabolomic data suggested that fat metabolism was improved from baseline for cats fed the test food.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that feeding overweight cats the test food caused weight loss and improvements in body condition during the weight maintenance phase, possibly because the food composition improved energy metabolism.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association