Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 4 of 4 items for

  • Author or Editor: Amanda K. Hartnack x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the potential association between Salmonella enterica shedding in hospitalized horses and the risk of diarrhea among stablemates, and to characterize gastrointestinal-related illness and death following discharge among horses that shed S enterica while hospitalized.

Design—Case-control study.

Animals—221 horses (59 that shed S enterica during hospitalization and 162 that tested negative for S enterica shedding ≥ 3 times during hospitalization).

Procedures—Information from medical records (signalment, results of microbial culture of fecal samples, clinical status at the time of culture, and treatment history) was combined with data collected through interviews with horse owners regarding formerly hospitalized horses and their stablemates. Data were analyzed to investigate risk factors for death and diarrhea.

Results—Occurrence of diarrhea among stablemates of formerly hospitalized horses was not associated with S enterica shedding in hospitalized horses but was associated with oral treatment with antimicrobials during hospitalization. Salmonella enterica shedding during hospitalization was not associated with risk of death or gastrointestinal-related illness in study horses ≤ 6 months after discharge, but shedding status and history of gastrointestinal illness were associated with increased risk of death during the preinterview period.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Stablemates of horses that shed S enterica during hospitalization did not appear to have an increased risk for diarrhea, but comingling with horses that receive orally administered antimicrobials may affect this risk. Salmonella enterica shedding during hospitalization may be a marker of increased long-term risk of death after discharge. Risks are likely influenced by the S enterica strain involved and biosecurity procedures used.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess the analgesic efficacy of an IV constant rate infusion (CRI) of a morphine-lidocaine-ketamine (MLK) combination in calves undergoing umbilical herniorrhaphy.

ANIMALS

20 weaned Holstein calves with umbilical hernias.

PROCEDURES

Calves were randomly assigned to receive a CRI of an MLK solution (0.11 mL/kg/h; morphine, 4.8 μg/kg/h; lidocaine, 2.1 mg/kg/h; and ketamine, 0.42 mg/kg/h) for 24 hours (MLK group) or 2 doses of flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg, IV, q 24 h) and a CRI of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (0.11 mL/kg/h) for 24 hours (control group). The assigned CRI was begun after anesthesia induction. A pain-scoring system and incisional algometry were used to assess pain, and blood samples were obtained to measure serum cortisol concentration at predetermined times for 120 hours after CRI initiation.

RESULTS

Mean pain scores did not differ significantly between the MLK and control groups at any time. Mean algometry score for the MLK group was significantly greater (calves were less responsive to pressure) than that for the control group at 4 hours after CRI initiation. Mean cortisol concentration decreased over time for both groups and was significantly greater for the MLK group than the control group at 1, 4, and 18 hours after CRI initiation.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

A CRI of MLK provided adequate postoperative analgesia to calves that underwent umbilical herniorrhaphy. However, the technical support required for CRI administration limits its use to hospital settings. Kinetic analyses of MLK infusions in cattle are necessary to establish optimal dosing protocols and withdrawal intervals.

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the pharmacokinetics of morphine, lidocaine, and ketamine associated with IV administration of a constant rate infusion (CRI) of a morphine-lidocaine-ketamine (MLK) combination to calves undergoing umbilical herniorrhaphy.

ANIMALS

20 weaned Holstein calves with umbilical hernias.

PROCEDURES

Calves were randomly assigned to receive a CRI of an MLK solution (0.11 mL/kg/h; morphine, 4.8 μg/kg/h; lidocaine, 2.1 mg/kg/h; and ketamine, 0.42 mg/kg/h) for 24 hours (MLK group) or 2 doses of flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg, IV, q 24 h) and a CRI of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (0.11 mL/kg/h) for 24 hours (control group). For all calves, the CRI was begun after anesthesia induction. Blood samples were obtained immediately before and at predetermined times for 120 hours after initiation of the assigned treatment. Noncompartmental analysis was used to estimate pharmacokinetic parameters for the MLK group.

RESULTS

During the CRI, steady-state serum concentrations were achieved for lidocaine and ketamine, but not morphine. Mean terminal half-life was 4.1, 0.98, and 1.55 hours and area under the concentration-time curve was 41, 14,494, and 7,426 h•μg/mL for morphine, lidocaine, and ketamine, respectively. After the CRI, the mean serum drug concentration at steady state was 6.3, 616.7, and 328 ng/mL for morphine, lidocaine, and ketamine, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

During the CRI of the MLK solution, steady-state serum concentrations were achieved for lidocaine and ketamine, but not morphine, likely owing to the fairly long half-life of morphine. Kinetic analyses of MLK infusions in cattle are necessary to establish optimal dosing protocols.

Restricted access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate indications for and factors relating to outcome after rumenotomy or rumenostomy in cattle.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—95 cattle that underwent rumenotomy or rumenostomy.

Procedures—Medical records for 95 cattle that underwent either rumenostomy or rumenotomy at 2 veterinary teaching hospitals in 1999 through 2011 were analyzed. Reasons for the procedures were noted. Long-term outcome was determined during telephone interviews with owners.

Results—42 (44%) bovids underwent rumenostomy and 53 (56%) bovids underwent rumenotomy. Among the 42 animals undergoing rumenostomy, 18 (43%) had rumen cannulas placed during elective procedures. Other indications for rumenostomy included ruminal tympany (bloat [n = 20]), esophageal obstruction (choke [1]), grain overload (1), and provision of access for administration of enteral nutrition (2). Indications for rumenotomy included traumatic reticuloperitonitis (n = 31), bloat (9), foreign body (6), choke (5), and other (2). Long-term follow-up data were available for 31 of 42 (74%) bovids that underwent rumenostomy. Of those 31 animals, 17 (55%) were still in the herd, 4 (13%) had been culled, and 10 (32%) had died or were euthanized. Long-term follow-up data were available for 38 of 53 (72%) bovids that underwent rumenotomy. Of those 38 animals, 13 (34%) were still in the herd, 14 (37%) had been culled, and 11 (29%) had died or been euthanized.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that rumenotomy and rumenostomy can be effective in treating or relieving complications secondary to forestomach disorders in cattle. Bovids undergoing rumen surgery had a favorable prognosis for survival and a fair prognosis for potential return to production.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association