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  • Author or Editor: Alonso G. P. Guedes x
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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To investigate the effects of ketamine hydrochloride on the analgesic effects of tramadol hydrochloride in horses with signs of pain associated with naturally occurring chronic laminitis.

Animals—15 client-owned adult horses with chronic laminitis.

Procedures—Each horse received tramadol alone or tramadol and ketamine in a randomized, crossover study (≥ 2 months between treatments). Tramadol (5 mg/kg) was administered orally every 12 hours for 1 week. When appropriate, ketamine (0.6 mg/kg/h) was administered IV for 6 hours on each of the first 3 days of tramadol administration. Noninvasive systemic blood pressure values, heart and respiratory rates, intestinal sounds, forelimb load and off-loading frequency (determined via force plate system), and plasma tumor necrosis factor-α and thromboxane B2 concentrations were assessed before (baseline) during (7 days) and after (3 days) each treatment.

Results—Compared with baseline data, arterial blood pressure decreased significantly both during and after tramadol-ketamine treatment but not with tramadol alone. Forelimb off-loading frequency significantly decreased during the first 3 days of treatment with tramadol only, returning to baseline frequency thereafter. The addition of ketamine to tramadol treatment reduced off-loading frequency both during and after treatment. Forelimb load did not change with tramadol alone but increased with tramadol-ketamine treatment. Plasma concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α and thromboxane B2 were significantly reduced with tramadol-ketamine treatment but not with tramadol alone.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In horses with chronic laminitis, tramadol administration induced limited analgesia, but this effect was significantly enhanced by administration of subanesthetic doses of ketamine.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate pharmacokinetics, recovery times, and recovery quality in horses anesthetized with 1.2 times the minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane or desflurane.

ANIMALS 6 healthy adult horses.

PROCEDURES Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane or desflurane for 2 hours at 1.2 times the minimum alveolar concentration. Horses recovered without assistance. During recovery, end-tidal gas samples were collected until horses spontaneously moved. Anesthetic concentrations were measured by use of gas chromatography. After a 1-week washout period, horses were anesthetized with the other inhalation agent. Video recordings of anesthetic recovery were evaluated for recovery quality on the basis of a visual analogue scale by investigators who were unaware of the anesthetic administered. Anesthetic washout curves were fit to a 2-compartment kinetic model with multivariate nonlinear regression. Normally distributed interval data were analyzed by means of paired Student t tests; ordinal or nonnormally distributed data were analyzed by means of Wilcoxon signed rank tests.

RESULTS Horses recovered from both anesthetics without major injuries. Results for subjective recovery evaluations did not differ between anesthetics. Area under the elimination curve was significantly smaller and time to standing recovery was significantly less for desflurane than for sevoflurane, although distribution and elimination constants did not differ significantly between anesthetics.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Differences in area under elimination the curve between anesthetics indicated more rapid clearance for desflurane than for sevoflurane in horses, as predicted by anesthetic blood solubility differences in this species. More rapid elimination kinetics was associated with faster recovery times, but no association with improved subjective recovery quality was detected.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To investigate the effects of preoperative epidural administration of racemic ketamine to provide analgesia in sheep undergoing experimental hind limb orthopedic surgery.

Animals—12 adult sheep (weight range, 51.4 to 67.2 kg).

Procedure—Sheep were anesthetized with guaifenesin, thiopental, and isoflurane; after induction of anesthesia, sheep received a lumbosacral epidural injection of ketamine (1 mg/kg; n = 6) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (1 mL/7 kg; 6 [control group]). Respiratory and cardiovascular variables were recorded before and at intervals during and for 6 hours after anesthesia. During that 6-hour postoperative period, analgesia was evaluated subjectively with a numeric ranking scale that included assessments of comfort, posture, movement, and response to wound palpation; buprenorphine was administered when a score > 3 (maximum score, 10) was achieved. Rectal temperature, heart and respiratory rates, and lameness were evaluated daily for 2 weeks after surgery.

Results—At all evaluations, cardiovascular and respiratory variables were comparable between the 2 groups. Compared with control sheep, time to first administration of rescue analgesic was significantly longer and total dose of buprenorphine administered during the 6- hour postoperative period was significantly decreased for ketamine-treated sheep. During the second week following surgery, ketamine-treated sheep had significantly less lameness than control sheep.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In sheep undergoing hind limb surgery, preoperative epidural administration of ketamine appears to provide analgesia in the immediate postoperative period and has residual analgesic effects, which may contribute to more rapid return of normal function in surgically treated limbs.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate tramadol for treatment of signs of pain and impaired mobility in geriatric cats with osteoarthritis.

DESIGN Randomized controlled crossover trial.

ANIMALS 24 client-owned geriatric (≥ 10 years old) cats with osteoarthritis.

PROCEDURES Otherwise healthy cats with owner-identified mobility impairment and clinical and radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis involving at least 1 appendicular joint were enrolled in the study. Cats were treated with tramadol orally at dosages of 0 (placebo), 1, 2, and 4 mg/kg (0, 0.45, 0.9, and 1.8 mg/lb) twice a day for 5 days, with a 2-day (weekend) washout period between treatments. Mobility was assessed with a collar-mounted activity monitor system, and impairments in activity were assessed with a client-completed questionnaire.

RESULTS 17 cats completed the study; 7 cats were withdrawn. There was a significant increase in activity with the 2-mg/kg dosage of tramadol, compared with activity when cats received the placebo. Significantly more owners (11/18) considered their cats to have improved with the 2-mg/kg treatment, compared with all other dosages (6/19 to 8/21). Most owners (17/20 [85%]) considered their cat's global quality of life to have improved during the study. Adverse events, predominantly euphoria, dysphoria, sedation, decreased appetite, and diarrhea, were significantly more frequent with the 4-mg/kg (8/19) and 2-mg/kg (6/18) treatments but not with the 1-mg/kg (2/21) treatment, compared with frequency of adverse events with the placebo (0/21).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested a beneficial effect of twice-daily oral administration of tramadol at a dosage of 2 mg/kg in geriatric cats with osteoarthritis. Adverse events were dose dependent, and caution should be exercised in cats that have concurrent disease or are receiving other drugs that may produce adverse gastrointestinal effects.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE Toevaluate effects of gabapentin on activity levels and owner-perceived mobility impairment and quality of life (QOL) in osteoarthritic geriatric cats.

DESIGN Blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized crossover-design study.

ANIMALS 20 osteoarthritic cats (≥ 10 years old).

PROCEDURES Cats received gabapentin (10 mg/kg [4.5 mg/lb]) or placebo treatment, PO, every 12 hours for 2 weeks, followed by the alternate treatment (with no washout period). Activity was assessed with a collar-mounted accelerometer. A client-specific outcome measure (CSOM) questionnaire was used weekly to collect owner assessments of 3 selected activities in which their cats had impaired mobility; QOL ratings (worse, the same, or improved) following crossover to each treatment and for the overall study period were collected at the end of the investigation. Activity counts, CSOM and QOL data, and deterioration in impaired activities (ie, decrease of ≥ 2 points in CSOM scores) associated with treatment crossover were assessed statistically. Adverse events were recorded.

RESULTS Gabapentin administration was associated with significantly lower mean daily activity counts (48,333 vs 39,038 counts/d) and significantly greater odds (approx 3-fold change) of CSOM ratings indicating improvement in impaired activities, compared with results for the placebo treatment. A greater proportion of cats had deterioration in impaired activities after the crossover from gabapentin to placebo than when the opposite occurred, but the proportion of cats with worsened QOL did not differ between sequences. Adverse events were noted for 10 cats (9 that completed the study) during gabapentin treatment (sedation, ataxia, weakness, and muscle tremors) and 1 cat during placebo treatment (lethargy).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Gabapentin treatment was associated with improvement in owner-identified impaired activities of osteoarthritic cats. Activity levels were lower than those during placebo treatment, and sedation was the most common adverse effect.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the influences of animal age, bacterial coinfection, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) isolate pathogenicity on virus concentration in pigs.

Animals—Twenty-one 2-month-old pigs and eighteen 6-month-old pigs.

Procedure—Pigs were grouped according to age and infected with mildly virulent or virulent isolates of PRRSV. The role of concurrent bacterial infection was assessed by infecting selected pigs with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae 21 days prior to inoculation with PRRSV. On alternating days, blood and swab specimens of nasal secretions and oropharyngeal secretions were collected. On day 21 after inoculation with PRRSV, selected tissues were harvested. Concentrations of PRRSV were determined by use of quantitative real-time PCR and expressed in units of TCID50 per milliliter (sera and swab specimens) or TCID50 per gram (tissue specimens).

Results—Concentrations of virus were higher in blood and tonsils of pigs infected with virulent PRRSV. Pigs infected with virulent PRRSV and M hyopneumoniae had significantly higher concentrations of viral RNA in lymphoid and tonsillar tissue. Coinfection with M hyopneumoniae resulted in a higher viral load in oropharyngeal swab specimens and blood samples, independent of virulence of the PRRSV isolate. Two-month-old pigs had significantly higher viral loads in lymph nodes, lungs, and tracheal swab specimens than did 6-month-old pigs, independent of virulence of the PRRSV isolate.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Multiple factors affect PRRSV concentration in pigs, including pathogenicity of the PRRSV isolate, age, and concurrent infection with M hyopneumoniae.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research