Case Description—A 17-month-old dog was evaluated because of progressive tetraparesis. The dog had a history of craniofacial trauma at 2 months of age.
Clinical Findings—Results of a neurologic examination were suggestive of a lesion localized to the medulla. Computed tomography revealed extensive pneumocephalus extending throughout the ventricular system and into the cranial cervical subarachnoid space.
Treatment and Outcome—Because of the deterioration in the dog's clinical condition, an emergency bilateral transfrontal craniectomy was performed. A large amount of pyogranulomatous material was found intraoperatively. Neurologic and computed tomographic abnormalities were no longer evident during a recheck examination 8 weeks after surgery.
Clinical Relevance—Findings suggested that pneumocephalus should be considered in the differential diagnosis for dogs with neurologic signs of an intracranial abnormality, particularly if the dog has a history of craniofacial trauma.
A 1-year-old neutered male Weimaraner was referred for evaluation of an acute onset of paraplegia. For 2 days prior to the onset of neurologic signs, the dog was lethargic and had episodic signs of pain. At the time of admission, no abnormalities were found on physical examination. Neurologic examination revealed normal mentation and cranial nerve function. The patient was paraplegic, with intact spinal reflexes and deep pain perception in both pelvic limbs and the tail. Signs of pain were evident over the cranial thoracic region of the vertebral column. The neuroanatomic localization was at the T3-L3 spinal cord segments.
Objective—To determine the prevalence of ischemic stroke in Greyhounds and determine whether affected dogs had coagulation abnormalities and hypertension.
Design—Multi-institutional, retrospective study.
Procedures—Medical records (including diagnostic testing results) and MRI images of the brain were reviewed for Greyhounds with ischemic stroke that had been evaluated at 4 institutions. The proportion of Greyhounds with ischemic stroke was compared with the proportion of non-Greyhound dogs with ischemic stroke. Demographic information for dogs evaluated at each institution was obtained to determine the proportion of Greyhounds in the hospital populations.
Results—21 Greyhounds with ischemic stroke were identified. Abnormalities in coagulation were not identified in the 14 Greyhounds that underwent such testing. Systemic hypertension was identified in 6 of 14 Greyhounds that underwent such testing. No other abnormalities were identified by means of other routine diagnostic tests for Greyhounds. For all institutions combined, the prevalence of ischemic stroke in Greyhounds was 0.66% (21/3,161 Greyhounds). Greyhounds were significantly more likely to be evaluated because of ischemic stroke, compared with all other dog breeds combined (OR, 6.6; 95% confidence interval, 4.2 to 10.2).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results of this study suggested that Greyhounds were predisposed to ischemic stroke, compared with all other breeds combined. Coagulation abnormalities did not seem to contribute to ischemic stroke. Hypertension may have contributed to the development of ischemic stroke. Greyhounds with ischemic stroke should undergo measurement of systolic arterial blood pressure. Antihypertensive treatments may be warranted for such dogs.
OBJECTIVE To compare the pharmacokinetics of various formulations of levetiracetam after oral administration of a single dose to healthy dogs.
ANIMALS 6 neurologically normal mixed-breed dogs.
PROCEDURES A crossover study design was used. Blood samples for serum harvest were collected from each dog before and at various points after oral administration of one 500-mg tablet of each of 2 generic extended-release (ER) formulations, 1 brand-name ER formulation, or 1 brand-name immediate-release (IR) formulation of levetiracetam. Serum samples were analyzed to determine pharmacokinetic properties of each formulation by means of ultra–high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.
RESULTS No dogs had clinically important adverse effects for any formulation of levetiracetam. All ER formulations had a significantly lower maximum serum drug concentration and longer time to achieve that concentration than did the IR formulation. Half-lives and elimination rate constants did not differ significantly among formulations. Values for area under the drug concentration-versus-time curve did not differ significantly between ER formulations and the IR formulation; however, 1 generic ER formulation had a significantly lower area under the curve than did other ER formulations.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE All ER formulations of levetiracetam had similar pharmacokinetic properties in healthy dogs, with some exceptions. Studies will be needed to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the various formulations; however, findings suggested that twice-daily administration of ER formulations may be efficacious in the treatment of seizures in dogs.