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  • Author or Editor: Allison B. Cannon x
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Abstract

Objective—To determine trends in urolith composition in cats.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Sample Population—5,230 uroliths.

Procedures—The laboratory database for the Gerald V. Ling Urinary Stone Analysis Laboratory was searched for all urolith submissions from cats from 1985 through 2004. Submission forms were reviewed, and each cat's age, sex, breed, and stone location were recorded.

Results—Minerals identified included struvite, calcium oxalate, urates, dried solidified blood, apatite, brushite, cystine, silica, potassium magnesium pyrophosphate, xanthine, and newberyite. During the past 20 years, the ratio of calcium oxalate stones to struvite stones increased significantly. When only the last 3 years of the study period were included, the percentage of struvite stones (44%) was higher than the percentage of calcium oxa-late stones (40%). The most common location for both types of uroliths was the bladder. The number of calcium oxalate-containing calculi in the upper portion of the urinary tract increased significantly during the study period. The number of apatite uroliths declined sig-nificantly and that of dried solidified blood stones increased significantly, compared with all other stone types. No significant difference in the number of urate stones was detected.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The increasing proportion of calcium oxalate uroliths was in accordance with findings from other studies and could be a result of alterations in cats' diets. However, the decreased percentage of calcium oxalate calculi and increased percentage of struvite calculi observed in the last 3 years may portend a change in the fre-quency of this type of urolith.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To describe clinical and diagnostic imaging features of zygomatic sialadenitis in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—11 dogs with zygomatic sialadenitis and 20 control dogs without evidence of retrobulbar disease.

Procedures—Medical records were searched for dogs with zygomatic sialadenitis that underwent some combination of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and ultrasonography. Signalment, clinical signs, results of clinicopathologic tests, cytologic and histologic diagnosis, treatment, qualitative disease features, and disease course were recorded. Images obtained via MRI or CT were analyzed for pre- and postcontrast signal intensity or density, respectively; zygomatic salivary gland area was determined. Results were compared with those of control dogs that underwent the same imaging procedures (n = 10/method). Ultrasonographic images of affected dogs were assessed qualitatively.

Results—Most (9/11) affected dogs were medium- or large-breed males (mean age, 8 years) with unilateral disease. Affected dogs had clinical signs of retrobulbar disease and cytologic or histologic evidence of zygomatic sialadenitis. Sialoceles were detected in 7 affected glands. Compared with values for control dogs, MRI findings in affected dogs (n = 7) included gland enlargement, T1-weighted hypointensity, T2-weighted hyperintensity, and increased contrast enhancement; CT features in affected dogs (2) included gland enlargement and hypodensity on unenhanced images. Retrobulbar masses were identified via ultrasonography in 9 of 10 orbits examined, and zygomatic salivary gland origin was detected in 4.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Visualization of anatomic structures for diagnosis of zygomatic sialadenitis and evaluation of adjacent structures was excellent via MRI and CT Ultrasonography was less definitive but useful for sample collection.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association