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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Objective

To evaluate the use of auricular vein catheters (AVC) in cattle in a clinical setting.

Design

Case series.

Animals

57 cattle.

Procedure

68 AVC were placed in cattle for the administration of drugs or rehydration fluids. Catheter size, quantity of fluids administered, duration of administration, drugs administered, duration of catheter maintenance, and problems were recorded.

Results

The AVC ranged in size from 20 to 14 gauge, with the latter being the predominate size. A maximum flow rate of 7.7 L/h was achieved, and the flow rate was satisfactory in all but 1 case. The maximum duration of maintenance was > 96 hours. Problems occurred in 29 of 68 (43%) catheterizations; the most frequent problem was occlusion of the catheter, which occurred 16 times (24%). No serious complications occurred.

Clinical Implications

Auricular vein catheters were a convenient, safe, and low-cost alternative to jugular vein catheters. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:905–907)

Free access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine results of ultrasound-guided cystocentesis and percutaneous infusion of Walpole's solution for treatment of male goats with urolithiasis.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—25 male goats with urolithiasis treated with Walpole's solution.

Procedures—Information obtained from the medical records included signalment, degree of urethral obstruction (partial vs complete), pertinent examination findings, concurrent illnesses, diet, other treatments administered, duration of hospitalization, whether the obstruction resolved, and outcome (ie, discharged vs euthanized).

Results—14 (58%) animals had complete urethral obstruction, and 10 (42%) had partial obstruction (degree of urethral patency was not recorded in 1 animal). Walpole's solution was infused once in 18 (72%) animals, twice in 6 (24%) animals, and 3 times in 1 (4%) animal. The amount of Walpole's solution required to achieve the target urine pH of 4 to 5 ranged from 50 to 250 mL. In 20 (80%) goats, the urethral obstruction resolved, and the goat was discharged. The remaining 5 (20%) goats were euthanized because of unresolved urethral obstruction. Six of the 20 (30%) goats that were discharged were reexamined because of recurrence of urethral obstruction.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that ultrasound-guided cystocentesis in combination with percutaneous infusion of Walpole's solution may be a useful treatment in male goats with obstructive urolithiasis.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine factors associated with development of postoperative ileus (POI) in horses undergoing surgery for colic.

Design—Prospective case-control study.

Animals—251 horses undergoing colic surgery, of which 47 developed POI.

Procedure—Signalment, history, clinicopathologic data, pre- and postoperative treatments, lesions, complications, costs, and outcome were recorded for all horses during hospitalization.

Results—Variables associated with increased odds of POI included small intestinal lesion, high PCV, and increased duration of anesthesia. There was modest evidence that pelvic flexure enterotomy and intraoperative administration of lidocaine may have reduced the odds of developing POI.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Findings during the preoperative and intraoperative periods can be used to identify horses at increased risk of POI. Reducing surgical and anesthetic duration should decrease the incidence of POI. ( J Am Vet Med Assoc 2004;225: 1070–1078)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine risk factors associated with development of postoperative ileus in horses undergoing surgery for colic.

Design—Case-control study

Animals—69 horses that developed ileus after surgery for colic and 307 horses that did not develop postoperative ileus.

Procedure—Signalment, history, clinicopathologic data, treatment, lesions, and outcome were obtained from medical records.

Results—Variables associated with increased risk of postoperative ileus included age > 10 years, Arabian breed, PCV ≥ 45%, high serum concentrations of protein and albumin, anesthesia > 2.5 hours' duration, surgery > 2 hours' duration, resection and anastomosis, and lesions in the small intestine. Enterotomy reduced the risk of postoperative ileus. After multivariate logistic regression, the final model included the variables Arabian breed, PCV ≥ 45%, lesion type, duration of surgery (> 2 hours vs ≤ 2 hours), and pelvic flexure enterotomy.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that by evaluating certain factors, horses at increased risk of postoperative ileus may be recognized before the condition develops. Preventative treatment and early intervention may be instituted in these horses. Shortening surgery time and performing an enterotomy may decrease the probability of horses developing postoperative ileus. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;219:72–78)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Monensin sodium (0, 15, or 30 mg/kg of complete feed) was fed ad libitum for 1 week to female mice (strain C57BL6/J) that were genetically susceptible to infection with Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. Ten mice in each of the 3 groups were inoculated intraperitoneally with M paratuberculosis (109 organisms). Sterile saline solution was injected intraperitoneally into 10 other mice in each group. Rations were continued for 50 days, then mice were euthanatized, and body weight, splenic weight, and hepatic weight for each mouse were recorded. Ratios of body weight to splenic weight and of body weight to hepatic weight were calculated for each mouse. Hepatic granulomas in 50 light microscopic fields were counted, and presence of acid-fast organisms in those granulomas was recorded. Infected mice given monensin had higher body weight and fewer hepatic granulomas than did mice not given monensin. Although hepatic granulomas were fewer in these mice, they contained acid-fast organisms. Effects of 15 mg of monensin and those of 30 mg of monensin/kg of complete feed were not different.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To examine the effect of various clinical tracks within the veterinary medical clinical curriculum at Texas A&M University on clinical diagnostic proficiency as determined by pre- and post-training assessment. We expected that the clinical track chosen by the student would impact their measured outcome with bias toward higher scores in their chosen field.

Design—Prospective cohort study.

Study Population—32 students from the College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences at Texas A&M University.

Procedures—By use of standardized, written case scenarios, clinical reasoning was assessed twice: once prior to the clinical (fourth) year of the curriculum and again at completion of the clinical year. Students demonstrated their abilities to collect and organize appropriate clinical data (history, physical examination, and laboratory findings), determine clinical diagnoses, and formulate and implement acceptable treatment modalities. Data from clinical assessments were compared for a given cohort and correlated with other measures (eg, grades, standardized test scores, and species-specific curricular track).

Results—Differences were detected in clinical diagnostic proficiency among students in different clinical tracks and for different species groups in the case scenarios. Tracking by species group in the clinical veterinary curriculum appeared to affect development of clinical reasoning and resulted in differential proficiency among cases for differing species groups.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Differences in clinical experiences between small animal tracks and all other track opportunities (large animal, mixed animal, and alternative) influenced the development of clinical proficiency in fourth-year veterinary students during their clinical training period.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association