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Abstract

Objective

To evaluate clearance of the vaccine strain, immunologic responses, and potential shedding of Brucella abortus strain RB51 organisms after vaccination of bison calves.

Animals

Fourteen 7-month-old female bison calves.

Procedure

10 bison calves were vaccinated SC with 1.22 × 1010 colony-forming units of B abortus strain RB51. Four bison calves were vaccinated SC with 0.15M NaCl solution. Rectal, vaginal, nasal, and ocular swab specimens were obtained to evaluate potential shedding by vaccinated bison. The superficial cervical lymph node was biopsied to evaluate clearance of the vaccine strain. Lymphocyte proliferative responses to strain RB51 bacteria were evaluated in lymph node cells obtained from biopsy specimens and also in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

Results

Strain RB51 was recovered from superficial cervical lymph nodes of vaccinates examined 6, 12, and 18 weeks after vaccination (4/4, 3/4, and 1/4, respectively) but not in vaccinates examined at 24 weeks (0/3) after vaccination or nonvaccinates examined at all sample collection times (n = 1 bison/sample period). Serologic, immunologic, and bacterial culture techniques failed to reveal shedding of strain RB51 by vaccinates or infection of nonvaccinated bison. Lymphocyte proliferative responses were evident in lymph node cells and blood mononuclear cells from strain RB51-vaccinated bison beginning 12 weeks after vaccination.

Conclusion

Strain RB51 was cleared from bison by 18 to 24 weeks after vaccination. Bison vaccinated with strain RB51 did not shed the vaccine strain to nonvaccinated bison housed in close proximity. Strain RB51 did not induce antibody responses in bison that would interfere with brucellosis surveillance tests, but did stimulate cell-mediated immunity. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:410–415)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Summary

Cutaneous reactivity to brucellin was evaluated in 10-month-old heifers vaccinated with low-virulence mutant strains of Brucella abortus and was compared with brucellin reactions in postparturient cows with active brucellosis. In the cows, the cutaneous lesion was characterized microscopically as severe, acute, serofibrinous vasculitis; dermal lesions at 6, 12, 25, and 48 hours after brucellin injection consisted of endothelial activation and perivascular exudation that led to progressive accumulation of fibrin, monocytes, macrophages, and lymphocytes. In vaccinated heifers, cutaneous tests were done, using standard brucellin, brucellin prepared from strain RB51, and the purified brucellar proteins-31K and superoxide dismutase. Negative-control cattle given saline solution, did not have cutaneous reactions. Standard brucellin induced the most marked reactions in vaccinated heifers. Brucellin from rough strain RB51 caused positive reactions in heifers vaccinated with strain 19, but reactions were variable in other groups. Skin lesions induced by purified superoxide dismutase and 31-kd proteins in vaccinated cattle were not acceptable for diagnosis. Marked variability of test responses in vaccinated cattle precludes field use of this test to determine vaccination status.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective

To establish that female calves vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain RB51 at 3, 5, and 7 months of age are protected against infection and abortion when challenged exposed during their first pregnancy.

Animals

Polled Hereford heifer calves obtained from a brucellosis-free herd.

Procedure

Calves were inoculated SC at 3, 5, or 7 months of age with strain RB51 (n = 26), strain 19 (n = 16), or sterile saline solution (n = 15). Calves were bred at 16 to 17 months of age and challenged exposed during the first pregnancy with virulent B abortus strain 2308.

Results

After vaccination, none of the heifers given strain RB51 developed serum antibodies that reacted in the standard tube agglutination test, but reacted in a dotblot assay, using RB51 antigen. B abortus was cultured from biopsy specimens of superficial cervical lymph nodes in the RB51 and S19 vaccinates at 10 weeks, but not at 12 weeks after vaccination. All 4 heifers that had been vaccinated with RB51 at 3 months of age were protected against infection and abortion when challenged exposed. Vaccination at 5 and 7 months of age gave equivalent protection. Heifers given strain 19 were 95% protected and controls (given saline solution) had a high incidence of infection and abortion.

Conclusions

Strain RB51 is protective at doses comparable to those of strain 19 in calves 3 to 10 months of age.

Clinical Relevance

Immunogenicity and failure to induce antibodies that interfere with the serologic diagnosis of field infections of B abortus make strain RB51 an effective vaccine. (Am J Vet Res 1996;57:1153—1156)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research