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  • Author or Editor: Allan J. Lepine x
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Abstract

Objective—To evaluate changes in protein and nutrient composition of milk throughout lactation in dogs.

Sample Population—Milk samples collected from 10 lactating Beagles.

Procedure—Milk samples were collected on days 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 after parturition and analyzed to determine concentrations of nitrogen, nonprotein nitrogen, casein, whey proteins, amino acids, lipids, lactose, citrate, minerals, and trace elements. Optimum conditions for separating casein from whey proteins and distribution of milk proteins throughout lactation were assessed by use of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.

Results—Protein concentration was high in samples collected on day 1 (143 g/L), decreased through day 21 (68.4 g/L), and increased thereafter. Concentration of nonprotein nitrogen did not change throughout lactation (5.7 to 9.9% of total nitrogen content). Casein-towhey ratio was approximately 70:30 and remained constant throughout lactation. Lactose concentration increased from 16.6 g/L on day 1 to 34.0 to 40.2 g/L on days 7 to 42. Lipid concentration ranged from 112.5 to 137.2 g/L. Citrate concentration increased from day 1 (4.8 mM) to day 7 (6.6 mM), then gradually decreased until day 42 (3.9 mM). Iron, zinc, copper, and magnesium concentrations decreased during lactation, whereas calcium and phosphorus concentrations increased. Calcium-to-phosphorus ratio remained constant throughout lactation (approx 1.6:1). Energy content of milk ranged from 1,444 to 1,831 kcal/L.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Protein and nutrient composition of milk changes throughout lactation in dogs. These data can provide valuable information for use in establishing nutrient requirements of puppies during the suckling period. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1266–1272)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objectives—To determine uptake of β-carotene by ovarian and uterine tissues and influence of dietary β- carotene on steroidogenesis and production of uterine protein during the estrous cycle in cats.

Animals—56 female cats.

Procedure—Cats were fed diets containing 0, 0.4, 2, or 10 mg of β-carotene daily for 8 weeks prior to detection of estrus. At time of observed estrus, all cats were manually induced to ovulate. Blood samples were obtained at estrus and every 2 days until day 14 after ovulation. On that day, cats underment laparotomy, and the ovaries and uterus were removed. Uterine contents were flushed, and luteal and endometrial tissues were obtained.

Results—Concentrations of β-carotene in plasma and luteal and endometrial tissues increased in a dosedependent manner. Concentrations of plasma progesterone were higher between days 6 and 10 after ovulation in cats fed diets containing β-carotene and continued to increase through day 14 after ovulation in cats fed a diet containing 10 mg of β-carotene. Plasma concentration of estradiol-17β also was higher between days 0 and 4 after ovulation in cats fed diets containing β-carotene. Cats fed a diet containing 10 mg of β-carotene had the highest plasma estradiol concentration. Total uterine protein concentration was higher in cats fed β-carotene, compared with values for cats fed an unsupplemented diet.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Cats readily absorb β-carotene. Increased concentrations of progesterone, estradiol, and uterine protein may provide more optimal ovarian function or a better uterine environment for embryonic survival and development. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1063–1067)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To study the musculoskeletal development of Great Dane puppies fed various dietary concentrations of calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) in fixed ratio by use of dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), determination of serum insulin-like growth factor I and parathyroid hormone concentrations, radiography, and blood chemistry analysis results.

Animals—32 purebred Great Dane puppies from 4 litters.

Procedure—At weaning, puppies were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 diets. Blood was collected for biochemical analyses and hormone assays, and radiography and DEXA were performed through 18 months of age. Changes in body weight, bone mineral content, fat tissue weight, lean mass, result of serum biochemical analyses, hormonal concentrations, and radius lengths were analyzed through 18 months of age.

Results—Bone mineral content of puppies correlated positively with Ca and P content of the diets fed. Significant differences between groups in bone mineral content, lean mass, and body fat were apparent early. The disparity among groups increased until 6 months of age and then declined until body composition was no longer different at 12 months of age. Accretion rates for skeletal mineral content, fat, and lean tissue differed from each other and by diet group.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Ca and P concentrations in the diet of young Great Dane puppies are rapidly reflected in the bone mineral content of the puppies until 5 to 6 months of age, after which hormonal regulation adjusts absorption and excretion of these minerals. Appropriate Ca and P concentrations in diets are important in young puppies < 6 months of age. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1036–1047)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research