Penicillin is the antimicrobial for which consultation is most frequently sought through FARAD and is one of the most commonly detected drug residues in tissue and milk. This article reviews studies related to extralabel penicillin administration and provides recommendations to assist veterinarians in preventing violative residues in tissue and milk.
Allergic reactions to foods containing residue concentrations of penicillin are rare and are almost always dermatologic reactions.1 There are, however, reports2,3 of anaphylactic reactions developing after consumption of food containing penicillin residues. Pasteurization only reduces penicillin residues approximately 10% to 20%,4 and penicillin can
The USDA considers game bird species to include grouse, guineafowl, partridges, pigeons (squabs), quail, pheasants, ducks, geese, and wild turkey. According to USDA regulations, although these game bird species may not be hunted in the wild for the purpose of being sold for human consumption, they may be sold for food when raised in captivity.1
In the United States, over 8 billion chickens and 220 million domestic turkeys are sold for human food consumption on an annual basis.2 In comparison, 37 million quail, 4 million chukars, 10 million pheasants, and 1 million mallard ducks are reportedly sold
Extralabel drug use encompasses the use of a drug in an animal in a manner that is not in accordance with the FDA-approved label. This includes use in a species or for a disease or condition not listed on the label; use at dosages, frequencies, or routes of administration that differ from those stated on the label; or deviation from the labeled withdrawal time. Extralabel drug use in veterinary species was made legal by the passage of AMDUCA in 1994.1 However, there are restrictions to AMDUCA, particularly with reference to ELDU in food-producing animals.
It has been over 10 years since the first FARAD Digest was published on the extralabel use of NSAIDs.1 Several things have changed since that time, including increased attention for residue violations associated with the use of NSAIDs (especially phenylbutazone) in cattle. In 1992, a survey of food animal veterinarians found that 93% (1,325/1,424) reported using NSAIDs, and almost 60% (751/1,322) reported using these drugs more than once a week.2 In 1995, a survey limited to dairy veterinarians reported anti-inflammatory drugs to be the second most prescribed class of drugs after antimicrobials.3 In this