Objective—To evaluate effects of blood collection method and site on results of thromboelastography in healthy dogs.
Animals—8 clinically normal purpose-bred dogs.
Procedures—Blood was collected from the external jugular vein by syringe aspiration via direct venipuncture with a 20-gauge needle, through a central venous catheter, or into an evacuated tube with a 21-gauge winged needle catheter. Blood was collected from the lateral saphenous vein by syringe aspiration via direct venipuncture with a 20-gauge needle or into an evacuated tube with a 21-gauge winged needle catheter. Kaolin-activated thromboelastographic analyses were performed, and R (reaction time), K (clot formation time), α angle, maximal amplitude, and G (global clot strength) were analyzed.
Results—No significant differences were observed with regard to sampling site. Sample collection method had no effect on thromboelastographic results for saphenous vein samples. Blood samples collected from the jugular vein by syringe aspiration had a lower R and K and higher α angle than did blood samples collected from the jugular vein by evacuated tube collection. Significant differences were observed between blood samples collected from the jugular vein by syringe aspiration and samples collected from the saphenous vein by evacuated tube collection and between samples collected from the saphenous vein by evacuated tube collection and samples collected from the jugular vein through a central venous catheter.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Different sampling methods resulted in small but significant differences in thromboelastographic values. Results justify the use of standardized techniques for research purposes, but all of these sampling methods were acceptable for 1-time clinical use.
Objective—To evaluate the effect of acepromazine maleate administered IV on platelet function assessed in healthy dogs by use of a modified thromboelastography assay.
Animals—6 healthy adult mixed-breed dogs.
Procedures—Dogs received each of 3 treatments (saline [0.9% NaCl] solution [1 to 2 mL, IV] and acepromazine maleate [0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg, IV]) in a randomized crossover study with a minimum 3-day washout period between treatments. From each dog, blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture immediately before and 30 and 240 minutes after administration of each treatment. A modified thromboelastography assay, consisting of citrated kaolin–activated (baseline assessment), reptilase-ADP–activated (ADP-activated), and reptilase-arachidonic acid (AA)–activated (AA-activated) thromboelastography, was performed for each sample. Platelet inhibition was evaluated by assessing the percentage change in maximum amplitude for ADP-activated or AA-activated samples, compared with baseline values. Percentage change in maximum amplitude was analyzed by use of Skillings-Mack tests with significance accepted at a family-wise error rate of P < 0.05 by use of Bonferroni corrections for multiple comparisons.
Results—No significant differences were found in the percentage change of maximum amplitude from baseline for ADP-activated or AA-activated samples among treatments at any time.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Platelet function in dogs, as assessed by use of a modified thromboelastography assay, was not inhibited by acepromazine at doses of 0.05 or 0.1 mg/kg, IV. This was in contrast to previous reports in which it was suggested that acepromazine may alter platelet function via inhibition of ADP and AA.
Objective—To determine whether thromboelastography is more accurate than conventional methods of evaluating hemostasis for the prediction of clinical bleeding in thrombocytopenic dogs following total body irradiation (TBI) and bone marrow transplantation (BMT).
Animals—10 client-owned thrombocytopenic dogs with multicentric lymphoma.
Procedures—Results of a kaolin-activated thromboelastography assay, platelet count, and buccal mucosal bleeding time were evaluated for correlation to clinical bleeding.
Results—Maximum amplitude, derived via thromboelastography, was the only hemostatic variable with significant correlation to clinical bleeding. Buccal mucosal bleeding time had a high sensitivity but poor specificity for identifying dogs with clinical bleeding.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Compared with buccal mucosal bleeding time and platelet count, thromboelastography was more reliable at identifying thrombocytopenic dogs with a low risk of bleeding and could be considered to help guide the use of transfusion products in dogs undergoing TBI and BMT.
OBJECTIVE To identify cardiac tissue genes and gene pathways differentially expressed between dogs with and without dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM).
ANIMALS 8 dogs with and 5 dogs without DCM.
PROCEDURES Following euthanasia, samples of left ventricular myocardium were collected from each dog. Total RNA was extracted from tissue samples, and RNA sequencing was performed on each sample. Samples from dogs with and without DCM were grouped to identify genes that were differentially regulated between the 2 populations. Overrepresentation analysis was performed on upregulated and downregulated gene sets to identify altered molecular pathways in dogs with DCM.
RESULTS Genes involved in cellular energy metabolism, especially metabolism of carbohydrates and fats, were significantly downregulated in dogs with DCM. Expression of cardiac structural proteins was also altered in affected dogs.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that RNA sequencing may provide important insights into the pathogenesis of DCM in dogs and highlight pathways that should be explored to identify causative mutations and develop novel therapeutic interventions.