A 12-year-old 5.4-kg (11.88-lb) spayed female Miniature Dachshund was referred for evaluation of a left head tilt and vestibular ataxia. The dog had become progressively ataxic over the preceding 3 days. Initially, the dog was presented to the primary veterinarian, who performed a CBC and serum biochemical panel; there were no important hematologic findings, and moderately high alanine transaminase activity (237 U/L; reference range, 10 to 125 U/L) and mild hyperglobulinemia (4.6 g/dL; reference range, 2.5 to 4.5 g/dL) were identified. The dog was given maropitant citrate (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb], SC, once) just prior to referral. At the referral
A 2-year-old 28-kg castrated male Australian Shepherd that was adopted from California at 8 weeks of age and traveled across the southwestern and southern US was referred for follow-up care and management after removal of a hard testicular mass (approx 2.5 to 5 mm in diameter) and castration by the primary veterinarian. The mass had been present for about 2 to 3 weeks prior to surgery, and purulent discharge during surgery was noted. In addition to surgery, the primary veterinarian performed a fecal examination, which revealed no evidence of parasitism. Monthly heartworm and flea and tick preventatives were prescribed.
A 10-year-old 5.3-kg (11.7-lb) neutered male Chihuahua was referred for evaluation of a mediastinal mass and pleural effusion identified on thoracic radiographs obtained by the referring veterinarian. Clinical signs included a nonproductive cough of 3 days' duration, respiratory difficulty, and restlessness the night prior to hospital admission.
Physical examination findings included obesity (body condition score, 8/9), tachypnea (44 breaths/min; reference range, 18 to 35 breaths/min), and tachycardia (228 beats/min; reference range, 70 to 120 beats/min) with an irregularly irregular cardiac rhythm. The dog's body temperature was within reference range (37.6°C [99.7°F]; reference range, 37.2° to 39.2°C [99.0° to 102.5°F]).
A 10-year-old 7.6-kg (16.7-lb) spayed female Pekingese was referred for evaluation because of progressive clinical signs including dull mentation, circling to the right, a right-sided head turn, head pressing, and, more recently, coughing, vomiting, anorexia, and melena. Empirical treatment with dexamethasone sodium phosphate, an antimicrobial, and a gastroprotectant was unsuccessful in resolving the clinical signs. Results of serum biochemical analysis and a CBC prior to referral revealed mildly high alkaline phosphatase activity and a stress leukogram.
What is the problem? Where is the lesion? What are the most probable causes of this problem? What is your plan to establish a
A 2.5-month-old female Angus calf was evaluated for an acute onset of hind limb paresis. The calf had been unable to rise for several hours and on initial evaluation was alert and responsive but sluggish. The calf was able to rise on its forelimbs and did attempt to suckle. The calf's rectal temperature was 39.2°C (102.5°F; reference range, 36.7° to 39.1°C [98.1° to 102.4°F]), heart rate was 120 beats/min (reference range, 60 to 80 beats/min), and respiratory rate was 24 breaths/min (reference range, 30 to 50 breaths/min). No rumen contractions were detected; however, increased respiratory effort and bruxism were
A 7-week-old 1.0-kg sexually intact female Jack Russell Terrier was referred for further evaluation and treatment of tachypnea, intermittent coughing, and signs of exercise intolerance that had persisted since the owner acquired the puppy a week earlier. The owner reported that the puppy was up-to-date on its vaccinations and had received pyrantel pamoate and sulfadimethoxine 2 weeks earlier.
On referral examination, the puppy was bright, alert, responsive, normothermic, tachycardic (172 beats/ min; reference range, 80 to 160 beats/min), tachypneic (60 breaths/min; reference range, 15 to 35 breaths/ min), and had a body condition score of 5 on a scale
A 13-year-old 5.5-kg (12.1-lb) castrated male Miniature Schnauzer was evaluated for a 2-day history of inappetence and an instance of vomiting 1 day before examination. The owner reported that diabetes mellitus had been diagnosed in the dog 3 years earlier and that since then, the dog had persistent polyuria and polydipsia. In addition, the dog had had an episode of diabetic ketoacidosis, pancreatitis, and a urinary tract infection 6 months before the present examination.
On physical examination, the dog had a grade 3/6 left apical heart murmur. The dog's abdomen had a tucked-up appearance and was tense on palpation,
A 14.5-year-old 6.3-kg (13.9-lb) spayed female West Highland White Terrier was examined because of a long-term history of vomiting that had progressed over the last 4 months from 3 to 5 episodes/wk to 3 episodes/d. These episodes were reported to occur approximately 15 minutes after water intake. The dog was current on core vaccinations and was receiving a monthly preventative against fleas, ticks, and heartworm.
On physical examination, the dog was bright, alert, and responsive and had a rectal temperature of 38.5°C (101.3°F; reference range, 37.8°C to 39.2°C [100°F to 102.6°F]), pulse rate of 110 beats/min (reference range, 80
A 10-month-old 26.8-kg castrated male Golden Retriever was referred because of a 5-month history of progressive pelvic limb ataxia and paresis. Prior to referral, the dog was evaluated by the primary veterinarian and empirically treated with prednisone (20 mg, PO, q 12 h, on a tapering schedule), doxycycline (unknown dosage), and physical therapy. The dog’s pelvic limb ataxia improved with medical treatment but worsened as the prednisone dosage was tapered.
On referral examination, the dog was bright, alert, and responsive and had abrasions on the dorsal aspect of digits 2 and 3 of the pelvic limbs bilaterally. The nails