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  • Author or Editor: Alicia K. Olivier x
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In collaboration with the American College of Veterinary Pathologists

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


OBJECTIVE To determine whether a maxillary nerve block via a modified infraorbital approach, applied before rhinoscopy and nasal biopsy of dogs, would decrease procedural nociception, minimize cardiorespiratory anesthetic effects, and improve recovery quality.

ANIMALS 8 healthy adult hound-type dogs

PROCEDURES In a crossover study, dogs received 0.5% bupivacaine (0.1 mL/kg) or an equivalent volume of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution as a maxillary nerve block via a modified infraorbital approach. A 5-cm, 20-gauge over-the-needle catheter was placed retrograde within each infraorbital canal, and bupivacaine or saline solution was administered into each pterygopalatine region. Rhinoscopy and nasal biopsy were performed. Variables monitored included heart rate, systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), diastolic arterial blood pressure (DAP), plasma cortisol and norepinephrine concentrations, purposeful movement, and pain scores. After a 14-day washout period, the other treatment was administered on the contralateral side, and rhinoscopy and nasal biopsy were repeated.

RESULTS SAP, MAP, and DAP were significantly higher for the saline solution treatment than for the bupivacaine treatment, irrespective of the time point. Plasma cortisol concentrations after saline solution treatment were significantly higher 5 minutes after nasal biopsy than at biopsy. Heart rate, norepinephrine concentration, purposeful movement, and pain score were not significantly different between treatments.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Maxillary nerve block via a modified infraorbital approach prior to rhinoscopy and nasal biopsy reduced procedural nociception as determined on the basis of blood pressures and plasma cortisol concentrations during anesthesia. These findings warrant further evaluation in dogs with nasal disease.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research



To determine whether passage of whole blood through a microaggregate filter by use of a syringe pump would damage canine erythrocytes.


Blood samples obtained from 8 healthy client-owned dogs.


Whole blood was passed through a standard microaggregate filter by use of a syringe pump at 3 standard administration rates (12.5, 25, and 50 mL/h). Prefilter and postfilter blood samples were collected at the beginning and end of a simulated transfusion. Variables measured at each time point included erythrocyte osmotic fragility, mean corpuscular fragility, RBC count, hemoglobin concentration, RBC distribution width, and RBC morphology. In-line pressure when blood passed through the microaggregate filter was measured continuously throughout the simulated transfusion. After the simulated transfusion was completed, filters were visually analyzed by use of scanning electron microscopy.


Regardless of administration rate, there was no significant difference in mean corpuscular fragility, RBC count, hemoglobin concentration, or RBC distribution width between prefilter and postfilter samples. Additionally, there were no differences in in-line pressure during the simulated transfusion among administration rates. Echinocytes were the erythrocyte morphological abnormality most commonly observed at the end of the transfusion at administration rates of 12.5 and 25 mL/h.


Results suggested that regardless of the administration rate, the microaggregate filter did not alter fragility of canine RBCs, but may have altered the morphology. It appeared that the microaggregate filter would not contribute to substantial RBC damage for transfusions performed with a syringe pump.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research