Objective—To evaluate the efficacy of an adjuvanted modified-live bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) vaccine against challenge with a virulent type 2 BVDV strain in calves with or without maternal antibodies against the virus.
Animals—23 crossbred dairy calves.
Procedures—Calves were fed colostrum containing antibodies against BVDV or colostrum without antiBVDV antibodies within 6 hours of birth and again 8 to 12 hours after the first feeding. Calves were vaccinated with a commercial modified-live virus combination vaccine or a sham vaccine at approximately 5 weeks of age and challenged with virulent type 2 BVDV 3.5 months after vaccination. Clinical signs of BVDV infection, development of viremia, and variation in WBC counts were recorded for 14 days after challenge exposure.
Results—Calves that received colostrum free of antiBVDV antibodies and were vaccinated with the sham vaccine developed severe disease (4 of the 7 calves died or were euthanatized). Calves that received colostrum free of anti-BVDV antibodies and were vaccinated and calves that received colostrum with antiBVDV antibodies and were vaccinated developed only mild or no clinical signs of disease.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that the modified-live virus vaccine induced a strong protective immune response in young calves, even when plasma concentrations of maternal antibody were high. In addition, all vaccinated calves were protected against viral shedding, whereas control calves vaccinated with the sham vaccine shed virus for an extended period of time.
Objective—To evaluate the efficacy of vaccination with the Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo type hardjoprajitno component of a pentavalent Leptospira bacterin against a virulent experimental challenge with Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar hardjo type hardjo-bovis strain 203 in cattle.
Animals—Fifty-five 6-month-old Holstein heifers.
Procedures—Heifers that were negative for persistent infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus determined via immunohistochemical testing and negative for Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona, Leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo, Leptospira interrogans serovar grippotyphosa, Leptospira interrogans serovar bratislava, Leptospira interrogans serovar canicola, and Leptospira interrogans serovar icterohaemorrhagiae determined via microscopic agglutination assay were enrolled in the study. Two heifers were separated and used for the challenge passage. The remaining heifers were vaccinated twice with a commercial pentavalent bacterin or a sham vaccine 21 days apart and subsequently challenged with L borgpetersenii serovar hardjo type hardjo-bovis strain 203. Urinary shedding, antibody titers, and clinical signs of leptospirosis infection were recorded for 8 weeks after challenge.
Results—Heifers that received the pentavalent bacterin did not shed the organism in urine after challenge and did not have renal colonization at necropsy. Heifers that were sham vaccinated shed the organism in urine and had renal colonization.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results provided evidence that a pentavalent Leptospira vaccine containing L interrogans serovar hardjo type hardjoprajitno can provide protection against challenge with L borgpetersenii serovar hardjo type hardjo-bovis strain 203. It is important to demonstrate cross-protection that is vaccine specific against disease-causing strains of organisms that are prevalent under field conditions.
Objective—To evaluate immunity induced by a multivalent vaccine containing a US Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo type hardjo bovis (LHB) isolate in heifers challenged 12 months after vaccination.
Design—Prospective vaccine challenge study.
Animals—36 one-month old Holstein heifers.
Procedures—18 heifers were vaccinated at 4 and 8 weeks of age with an inactivated vaccine containing Leptospira fractions. Additionally, 18 heifers were vaccinated at the same age with the same vaccine without any Leptospira fractions. All heifers were challenged with a US-origin LHB 12 months following booster vaccination. Urine samples were collected weekly for 8 weeks after challenge, and serum was collected at −1, 28, and 56 days after challenge for serologic testing. At 8 weeks after challenge, all heifers were necropsied, and kidney and reproductive system samples were collected for bacteriologic culture.
Results—4 of 18 vaccinates had positive results of bacteriologic culture of urine samples, but only at 1 time point. All control heifers had positive results of bacteriologic culture of urine samples for at least 5 time points. Vaccinates had negative results of bacteriologic culture of kidney and reproductive system samples following necropsy, whereas all control heifers had positive results of bacteriologic culture of kidney samples and 5 of 18 had positive results of bacteriologic culture of reproductive system samples.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The vaccine administered to calves at 1 month of age prevented leptospire colonization of kidney and reproductive system tissue and significantly reduced urine shedding following challenge 12 months after vaccination. This vaccine provides an opportunity to protect calves at an early age from becoming infected and ultimately from becoming an LHB reservoir.
Objective—To evaluate the efficacy of an inactivated bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) vaccine to protect against BHV-1 challenge-induced abortion and stillbirth.
Animals—35 beef heifers.
Procedures—Before breeding, heifers were vaccinated with a commercially available BHV-1 inactivated vaccine SC or IM. The estrous cycle was then synchronized, and heifers were artificially inseminated 30 to 60 days after vaccination. Heifers (n = 21) were challenge inoculated IV at approximately 180 days of gestation with virulent BHV-1. Fourteen control heifers were not vaccinated. Clinical signs of BHV-1 infection were monitored for 10 days following challenge; serologic status and occurrence of abortion or stillbirth were evaluated until time of calving.
Results—18 of 21 (85.7%) heifers that received vaccine were protected from abortion following challenge, whereas all 14 control heifers aborted.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that an inactivated BHV-1 vaccine can protect against abortion resulting from a substantial challenge infection, with efficacy similar to that of modified-live BHV-1 vaccines.