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OBJECTIVE To determine whether passive ureteral dilation (PUD) would occur after an indwelling ureteral stent was left in place in healthy dogs for 2 or 6 weeks, ureteroscopy would be possible at the time of stent removal, and PUD would be reversible after stent removal.

ANIMALS 5 healthy adult female Beagles.

PROCEDURES A ureteral stent was cystoscopically placed in each ureter of each dog with fluoroscopic guidance (week 0). One stent was removed from 1 ureter in each dog after 2 weeks (ureter group 1), and the other was removed after 6 weeks (ureter group 2); removal timing was randomized. Computed tomographic excretory urography was performed every 2 weeks from weeks 0 through 10 to measure ureteral diameters. Ureteroscopy was attempted at the time of ureteral stent removal in each group. Ureteral diameters were compared among measurement points.

RESULTS The degree of PUD was significant after 2 and 6 weeks of stent placement in both ureter groups. Mean diameter of the midportion of the ureter in both groups prior to stent placement was 1.70 mm (range, 1.3 to 2.7 mm). At stent removal, mean diameter of the midportion of the ureter was 2.86 mm (range, 2.4 to 3.1 mm) in group 1 and 2.80 mm (range, 2.1 to 3.4 mm) in group 2. Ureteroscopy was successfully performed in all dogs up to the renal pelvis. Compared with week 0 values for diameter of the midportion of the ureter, the degree of PUD induced by stent placement had reversed by week 8 in group 1 (mean diameter, 2.00 mm [range, 1.5 to 2.3 mm]).

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that ureteral stent placement for 2 weeks would result in sufficient PUD in healthy dogs to allow ureteroscopy at the time of stent removal and that the original ureteral diameter would eventually be restored. Additional research is needed to determine whether findings would be similar for dogs with urinary tract disease.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


OBJECTIVE To determine risk factors for surgical intervention, complications, and outcome in dogs with an esophageal foreign body (EFB).

DESIGN Retrospective observational study.

ANIMALS 224 incidents of EFB in 223 dogs evaluated at a veterinary teaching hospital from 1995 through 2014.

PROCEDURES Hospital records were reviewed to collect data regarding signalment, history, clinical signs, EFB type and location, procedures, complications, and outcomes. Breed distributions were compared between dogs with EFB and the entire canine patient population during the study period. Variables were tested for associations with each other and with outcomes.

RESULTS Terrier breeds were most common (71/233 [30.5%]). Duration of EFB entrapment, body weight, anorexia, lethargy, rectal temperature, and esophageal perforation were associated with the need for surgical intervention. Older age, longer duration of EFB entrapment, and perforation were associated with a poorer prognosis. Endoscopic retrieval or advancement into the stomach was successful for 183 of 219 (83.6%) EFBs, and 16 of 143 (11.2%) entrapments resulted in postprocedural esophageal stricture. Overall median duration of hospitalization was brief (1 day), and the need for surgical intervention was associated with a longer duration. Overall mortality rate was 5.4% (12/223); 90 of 102 (88.2%) dogs with a median follow-up period of 27 months after EFB treatment had an excellent outcome.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Study findings suggested that endoscopic EFB retrieval remains the initial treatment option of choice for affected dogs, provided that esophageal perforation does not necessitate surgical intervention. Although esophageal stricture formation was the most common complication, the overall rate of this outcome was low.

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To compare the diagnostic quality of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid acquired from healthy dogs by manual aspiration via polyethylene tubing (MAPT) and via suction pump aspiration (SPA) with a suction trap connection.

Animals—12 healthy adult Beagles.

Procedures—BAL was performed with bronchoscopic guidance in anesthetized dogs. The MAPT was performed with a 35-mL syringe attached to polyethylene tubing wedged in a bronchus via the bronchoscope's biopsy channel. The SPA was performed with 5 kPa of negative pressure applied to the bronchoscope's suction valve via a suction trap. The MAPT and SPA techniques were performed in randomized order on opposite caudal lung lobes of each dog. Two 1 mL/kg lavages were performed per site. Samples of BAL fluid were analyzed on the basis of a semiquantitative quality scale, percentage of retrieved fluid, and total nucleated and differential cell counts. Results were compared with Wilcoxon signed rank tests.

Results—Percentage of BAL fluid retrieved (median difference, 16.2%), surfactant score (median difference, 1), and neutrophil count (median difference, 74 cells/μL) were significantly higher for SPA than for MAPT. A higher BAL fluid epithelial cell score was obtained via MAPT, compared with that for samples obtained via SPA (median difference, 1).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that in healthy dogs, SPA provided a higher percentage of BAL fluid retrieval than did MAPT. The SPA technique may improve the rate of diagnostic success for BAL in dogs, compared with that for MAPT. Further evaluation of these aspiration techniques in dogs with respiratory tract disease is required.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To compare bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid obtained by manual aspiration (MA) with a handheld syringe with that obtained by suction pump aspiration (SPA) in healthy dogs.

Animals—13 adult Beagles.

Procedures—Each dog was anesthetized and bronchoscopic BAL was performed. The MA technique was accomplished with a 35-mL syringe attached to the bronchoscope biopsy channel. The SPA technique was achieved with negative pressure (5 kPa) applied to the bronchoscope suction valve with a disposable suction trap. Both aspiration techniques were performed in each dog in randomized order on opposite caudal lung lobes. Two 1 mL/kg aliquots of warm saline (0.9% NaCl) solution were infused per site. For each BAL fluid sample, the percentage of retrieved fluid was calculated, the total nucleated cell count (TNCC) and differential cell count were determined, and semiquantitative assessment of slide quality was performed. Comparisons were made between MA and SPA techniques for each outcome.

Results—1 dog was removed from the study because of illness. The mean percentage of fluid retrieved (mean difference, 23%) and median TNCC (median distribution of differences, 100 cells/μL) for samples obtained by SPA were significantly greater than those for samples obtained by MA.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In healthy dogs, BAL by SPA resulted in a significantly higher percentage of fluid retrieval and samples with a higher TNCC than did MA. Further evaluation of aspiration techniques in dogs with respiratory tract disease is required to assess whether SPA improves the diagnostic yield of BAL samples.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research


OBJECTIVE To compare bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) accomplished by use of a bronchoscopic (B-BAL) and a nonbronchoscopic (NB-BAL) technique in healthy cats.

ANIMALS 12 healthy cats.

PROCEDURES Two BALs were performed in a randomized order 2 weeks apart in each cat. Cats were anesthetized, and a 2.9-mm fiberoptic bronchoscope (B-BAL) or 8F red rubber catheter (NB-BAL) was wedged in a bronchus. Two 5-mL aliquots of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution were infused into the left and right caudal lung fields and aspirated manually with a 20-mL syringe. Proportion of BAL fluid (BALF) retrieved, depth of wedging, and anesthetic complications were recorded. Total nucleated cell count, differential cell count, and semiquantitative scores of cytologic slide quality were determined for all BALF samples. Results were compared with ANOVAs and Wilcoxon signed rank tests.

RESULTS Proportion of retrieved BALF and depth of wedging were significantly greater for B-BAL than NB-BAL. Differential cell counts and cytologic slide quality did not differ significantly between techniques. Complications included transient hemoglobin desaturation (24/24 [100%] BALs) and prolonged anesthetic recovery time (4/24 [17%] BALs). Anesthetic recovery scores did not differ significantly between techniques.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that NB-BAL was noninferior to B-BAL with regard to ease of performance, anesthetic variables, and cytologic slide quality for cats without clinical respiratory tract disease.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research