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  • Author or Editor: Alexia McKnight x
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Objective—To determine prevalence, clinical features, and causes of epistaxis in dogs.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—176 dogs with epistaxis.

Procedures—Medical records were reviewed for information related to signalment, clinical features, diagnosis, and outcome.

Results—132 (75%) dogs were initially examined by the hospital's emergency service; prevalence of epistaxis was 0.3%. Dogs with epistaxis were more likely to be old (≥ 6 years), male, and large (≥ 26 kg [58.5 lb]) than were dogs in a reference population. In 109 (62%) dogs with epistaxis, an underlying cause was identified; 115 underlying disorders were identified, with 90 classified as local and 25 classified as systemic. Local causes of epistaxis included nasal neoplasia (n = 35), trauma (33), idiopathic rhinitis (20), and periapical abscess (2). Systemic causes included thrombocytopenia (12), thrombocytopathia (7), coagulopathy (3), hypertension (2), and vasculitis (1). Dogs with local causes were more likely to have unilateral than bilateral epistaxis, but 11 of 21 (52%) dogs with systemic disorders also had unilateral epistaxis. Dogs with systemic disorders were more likely to have clinical signs of systemic disease. Duration of epistaxis (acute vs chronic), severity, and duration of hospitalization were similar for dogs with local versus systemic disorders.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that epistaxis was a common disorder in dogs and frequently regarded as an emergency. Local causes of epistaxis were predominant, but clinical features traditionally thought to be helpful in distinguishing local versus systemic causes could not be reliably used for this purpose.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine the safety and short-term efficacy of intrabursal administration of botulinum toxin type B (BTXB) to alleviate lameness in horses with degenerative injury to the podotrochlear apparatus (PA).

Animals—10 Quarter Horses with degenerative injury to the PA.

Procedures—Degenerative injury to the PA was confirmed with diagnostic analgesia and imaging. Then, BTXB (3.8 to 4.5 U/kg) was injected into the podotrochlear (navicular) bursa of each horse. Three horses were used in a safety evaluation. Subsequently, video recordings of lameness evaluations were obtained for 7 client-owned horses 5 days before (baseline) and 7 and 14 days after BTXB treatment and used to determine the effect of BTXB injection on lameness; 1 horse was removed from the study 8 days after BTXB treatment. Three investigators who were unaware of the treated forelimbs or time points separately reviewed the recordings and graded the lameness of both forelimbs of the horses.

Results—Improvement in lameness of the treated forelimbs was detected at 1 or both time points after BTXB administration in all horses. However, all horses had some degree of lameness at the end of the study. Two horses developed transient increases in lameness 48 to 72 hours after treatment; lameness resolved uneventfully.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Intrabursal injection of BTXB temporarily alleviated chronic lameness in horses with degenerative injury to the PA, without causing serious short-term adverse effects. Further investigation into the potential use of BTXB in horses affected by degenerative injury to the PA is warranted.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research