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  • Author or Editor: Alexandra Woerdt van der x
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Abstract

Objective—To compare in vitro and in vivo absorptive capacities of modified Schirmer tear test strips with those of original strips, and to establish reference values for use with the modified strips.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—100 dogs.

Procedure—In vitro absorptive capacity was determined by immersing strips in an irrigating solution for 15 seconds and recording amount of wetting. In vivo absorptive capacity was determined by placing an original Schirmer tear test strip in 1 eye and a modified strip in the other eye of 50 dogs with normal or abnormal tear production. Time required to wet 10 mm of each strip was recorded. Measurements were repeated 30 minutes later after reversing which strip was placed in the left or right eye. Reference values (mean ± SD) were determined by recording the time required to wet 10 mm of the modified strip in 50 healthy dogs.

Results—Amount of wetting was significantly less and time required to wet 10 mm was significantly greater for the modified strip, compared with the original strip. Reference values determined for the modified strip were 32 ± 11 seconds in the right eye, 33 ± 11 seconds in the left eye, and 32 ± 10 seconds in both eyes.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Absorptive capacities of the original and modified Schirmer tear test strips were significantly different. Reference values determined for 1 strip should not be used for the other strip. (J Am Vet Assoc 2000;216:1576–1577)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare mean healing times after debridement, debridement with grid keratotomy, and superficial keratectomy in cats with nonhealing corneal ulcers.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—29 cats with 36 nonhealing corneal ulcers.

Procedure—Medical records of cats with nonhealing corneal ulcers were reviewed. Signalment, duration of clinical signs, ophthalmic abnormalities, and response to various treatment protocols were recorded.

Results—Mean age of affected cats was 7 years, 8 months. Affected breeds included domestic shorthair (17 cats), Persian (9), Himalayan (2), and Siamese (1). Clinical signs were evident for approximately 2 weeks prior to referral. Both eyes were affected in 4 cats. Mean healing time of ulcers treated with superficial debridement was 30 days. Mean healing time of ulcers treated with superficial debridement and grid keratotomy was 42 days. Superficial keratectomy was performed on 2 eyes and resulted in a healing time of 2 weeks. Formation of a corneal sequestrum was evident in 2 of 21 eyes treated with superficial debridement. Formation of a corneal sequestrum was evident in 4 of 13 eyes treated with superficial debridement and grid keratotomy.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Brachycephalic cats appear to be predisposed to developing nonhealing corneal ulcers. The combination of superficial debridement and grid keratotomy did not decrease mean healing time of nonhealing ulcers, compared with superficial debridement alone. Grid keratotomy may predispose cats with corneal ulcers to develop a corneal sequestrum. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:733–735)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

During a 5-year period, phacolytic uveitis was diagnosed in 202 eyes of 151 dogs admitted to the veterinary teaching hospital. The diagnosis of phacolytic uveitis was based on the finding of a cataractous lens and anterior uveitis, unassociated with other identifiable causes of uveal inflammation. The most commonly affected breeds were the Toy and Miniature Poodle (35%) and the American Cocker Spaniel (19%). The mean age was 7.0 years for all breeds, 5.1 years for the Cocker Spaniel, and 9.0 years for the Poodle breeds. Evidence of cataract resorption was visible in 72% of the eyes. Fifty-one dogs were affected bilaterally and 100 dogs unilaterally. The mean interval between recognition of the cataract and the onset of lens-induced uveitis (liu) was 17 months; mean times of 25 and 11 months were seen in the Poodle breeds and American Cocker Spaniel, respectively. The mean age of dogs requiring > 1 revisit before the inflammation had subsided was 5.5 years. Complications, referable to the uveitis, were seen in 14% of eyes, the most important of which were glaucoma (16 eyes) and phthisis bulbi (9 eyes). Lens extraction surgery was done on 50 liu-affected eyes, and on 35 normal eyes in liu-affected animals. The 2- and 6-month success rates for liu-affected eyes were 78 and 39%, respectively, and for normal eyes in liu-affected animals were 85 and 71%, respectively.

On the basis of findings, we suggest that liu develops sooner after the onset of cataract formation in young dogs, and implies that their response to medical treatment is worse when compared with that in older dogs. It is probable that higher concentrations of lenticular α-crystallin protein, along with faster cataract resorption in the lens of young dogs, account for this decreased responsiveness to anti-inflammatory treatment, because T-cell tolerance to α-crystallin is more easily terminated than to other lens proteins. The observation that normal eyes of liu-affected dogs retained a good prognosis following lens extraction surgery suggests that local, rather than systemic, immune factors are of primary importance in the pathogenesis of canine liu.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Records of 147 dogs with cataracts and that had an ultrasonographic examination of their eyes were reviewed. Ultrasonography was performed, using a real-time mechanical sector scanner (7.5 or 10.0 MHz transducer), after topical anesthesia of the cornea. Vitreous degeneration was diagnosed in 23% of the eyes examined. Retinal detachment was detected in 11% of all eyes, but was detected in 4% of eyes with immature cataracts, 6.5% of eyes with mature cataracts, and 19% of eyes with hypermature cataracts. In 66% of the eyes, the cataract was the only ultrasonographic abnormality found. Vitreous degeneration and retinal detachment were most often observed in eyes with a hypermature cataract, and were uncommon in eyes with an immature cataract. We concluded that ultrasonographic examination can detect abnormalities of the posterior segment when opacity of the anterior segment precludes complete ophthalmoscopic examination and that it is a quick and easy procedure for screening dogs for retinal detachment prior to cataract surgery.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective

To determine normal variation in, and effect of 2% pilocarpine hydrochloride on, intraocular pressure (IOP) and pupil size in female horses during a specified period.

Animals

10 female horses with normotensive eyes.

Procedure

IOP and horizontal and vertical pupil size were measured on a single day between 8 am and 8 pm at hours 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12. Measurements were repeated after single-dose application of 2% pilocarpine to both eyes. IOP and pupil size were measured at 8 am and noon in a 5-day experiment of twice-daily application of 2% pilocarpine.

Results

Variation in IOP and pupil size was not significant between 8 am and 8 pm. Change in IOP or pupil size after a single dose of 2% pilocarpine also was not significant. In the multiple-dose experiment, the IOP at noon on the fifth day was significantly higher than the IOP in the morning on the first and second days. The IOP in the morning on the fifth day was significantly higher than the IOP in the morning and at noon on the first and second days. The IOP at noon on the fourth day was significantly higher than the morning IOP on the first and second days and at noon on the first day. The decrease in vertical pupil size was significant.

Conclusions

Between 8 am and 8 pm, variation in IOP and pupil size in normotensive eyes of horses is not significant. Two percent pilocarpine does not significantly change IOP between 8 am and 8 pm in clinically normal horses after a single dose or multiple twice-daily applications. After multiple twice-daily applications, a trend toward an increase in IOP was seen, and the decrease in vertical pupil size was significant. (Am J Vet Res 1998;59:1459–1462)

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research