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  • Author or Editor: Alexandra Van Der Woerdt x
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Abstract

Objective—To compare in vitro and in vivo absorptive capacities of modified Schirmer tear test strips with those of original strips, and to establish reference values for use with the modified strips.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—100 dogs.

Procedure—In vitro absorptive capacity was determined by immersing strips in an irrigating solution for 15 seconds and recording amount of wetting. In vivo absorptive capacity was determined by placing an original Schirmer tear test strip in 1 eye and a modified strip in the other eye of 50 dogs with normal or abnormal tear production. Time required to wet 10 mm of each strip was recorded. Measurements were repeated 30 minutes later after reversing which strip was placed in the left or right eye. Reference values (mean ± SD) were determined by recording the time required to wet 10 mm of the modified strip in 50 healthy dogs.

Results—Amount of wetting was significantly less and time required to wet 10 mm was significantly greater for the modified strip, compared with the original strip. Reference values determined for the modified strip were 32 ± 11 seconds in the right eye, 33 ± 11 seconds in the left eye, and 32 ± 10 seconds in both eyes.

Conclusion and Clinical Relevance—Absorptive capacities of the original and modified Schirmer tear test strips were significantly different. Reference values determined for 1 strip should not be used for the other strip. (J Am Vet Assoc 2000;216:1576–1577)

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To compare mean healing times after debridement, debridement with grid keratotomy, and superficial keratectomy in cats with nonhealing corneal ulcers.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—29 cats with 36 nonhealing corneal ulcers.

Procedure—Medical records of cats with nonhealing corneal ulcers were reviewed. Signalment, duration of clinical signs, ophthalmic abnormalities, and response to various treatment protocols were recorded.

Results—Mean age of affected cats was 7 years, 8 months. Affected breeds included domestic shorthair (17 cats), Persian (9), Himalayan (2), and Siamese (1). Clinical signs were evident for approximately 2 weeks prior to referral. Both eyes were affected in 4 cats. Mean healing time of ulcers treated with superficial debridement was 30 days. Mean healing time of ulcers treated with superficial debridement and grid keratotomy was 42 days. Superficial keratectomy was performed on 2 eyes and resulted in a healing time of 2 weeks. Formation of a corneal sequestrum was evident in 2 of 21 eyes treated with superficial debridement. Formation of a corneal sequestrum was evident in 4 of 13 eyes treated with superficial debridement and grid keratotomy.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Brachycephalic cats appear to be predisposed to developing nonhealing corneal ulcers. The combination of superficial debridement and grid keratotomy did not decrease mean healing time of nonhealing ulcers, compared with superficial debridement alone. Grid keratotomy may predispose cats with corneal ulcers to develop a corneal sequestrum. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:733–735)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To characterize the clinical and morphologic aspects of aqueous humor misdirection syndrome (AHMS) in cats and provide a hypothesis regarding its pathogenesis on the basis of detailed analysis of affected cats.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—32 cats (40 eyes).

Procedure—Medical records of cats in which AHMS was diagnosed from July 1997 to August 2003 were reviewed. In certain cats, results of additional diagnostic testing were also obtained, including A-scan, B-scan, and high-resolution ultrasonography; streak retinoscopy; video keratometry; and infrared neutralizing videoretinoscopy as well as results of analysis of flash-frozen sections and histologic examination of enucleated globes.

Results—Cats had a uniformly shallow anterior chamber, intact lens zonules, and a narrowed approach to an open iridocorneal angle. Mean age of affected cats was 11.7 years (range, 4 to 16 years), and female cats were significantly more often affected than male cats. Clinical signs included mydriasis, decreased pupillary light reflex, decreased menace response, and blindness. Glaucomatous changes to the optic nerve, incipient cataracts, and eventual blindness were seen. Intraocular pressure was ≥ 20 mm Hg (range, 12 to 58 mm Hg) in 32 of 40 eyes. Ultrasonography and histologic examination revealed a thickened anterior vitreal face interposed between the lens and ciliary body, partial ciliary cleft collapse, and cavitated vitreal regions. Various treatment modalities were used.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—AHMS affects older cats, especially females, and may result in glaucoma, vision loss, and signs of ocular pain. Topical administration of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors decreased intraocular pressure. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1434–1441)

Restricted access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To identify genetic associations with primary glaucoma (PG) in American Cocker Spaniels using a genome-wide association study (GWAS).

ANIMALS

A nationwide ambidirectional case–control cohort study was performed in American Cocker Spaniels that had an ophthalmic examination performed by a veterinarian. Ninety-four dogs with PG (cases) and 111 dogs without glaucoma (controls) met phenotypic criteria and had a blood sample collected after receiving informed owner consent.

PROCEDURES

Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood samples and genotyped (CanineHD BeadChip, Illumina Inc). A case–control GWAS using a linear mixed model was performed, and 3 significance thresholds were calculated (1) using a Bonferroni correction on all single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) included in the GWAS, (2) using a Bonferroni correction on only the unlinked SNPs from a pruned data set, and (3) using 10,000 random phenotype permutations.

RESULTS

Following genotype data quality control, 89 cases and 93 controls were included in the GWAS. We identified an association on canine chromosome (CFA10); however, it did not reach statistical significance. Potential candidate genes within the surrounding linkage disequilibrium interval include coiled-coil domain containing 85A (CCDC85A) and extracellular growth factor containing fibulin extracellular matrix protein 1 (EFEMP1).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Primary glaucoma in the American Cocker Spaniel is a complex heterogeneous disease that may be influenced by a locus on CFA10. The candidate genes CCDC85A and EFEMP1 within the identified linkage disequilibrium interval have been shown to be involved in human open-angle glaucoma.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research