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  • Author or Editor: Alexandra Squires Bos x
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Objective—To determine accuracy, intermethod agreement, and inter-reviewer agreement for multisequence magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 2-view orthogonal myelography in small-breed dogs with first-time intervertebral disk (IVD) extrusion.

Design—Prospective evaluation study.

Animals—24 dogs with thoracolumbar IVD extrusion.

Procedures—Each dog underwent MRI and myelography. Images obtained with each modality were independently evaluated and assigned standardized scores in a blinded manner by 3 reviewers. Results were compared with surgical findings. Inter-reviewer and intermethod agreements were assessed via κ statistics. Accuracy was assessed as the percentage of dogs for which ≥ 2 of 3 reviewers recorded findings identical to those determined surgically.

Results—Inter-reviewer agreement was substantial for site (κ = 0.70) and side of IVD extrusion (κ = 0.62) in T2-weighted magnetic resonance images and was substantial for site (κ = 0.72) and fair for side of extrusion (κ = 0.37) in myelographic images. Agreement for site between each modality and surgical findings was near perfect (κ = 0.94 and 0.88 for MRI and myelography, respectively). Intermethod agreement was substantial for site (κ = 0.71) and moderate for side of extrusion (κ = 0.40). Accuracy of MRI for site and side was 100% when results for T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences were combined. Accuracy of myelography was 90.9% and 54.5% for site and side, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Agreement between imaging results and surgical findings for identification of IVD extrusion sites in small-breed dogs was similar for MRI and myelography. However, MRI appeared to be more accurate than myelography and allowed evaluation of extradural compressive mass composition.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To determine whether the ventrodorsal myelographic view can be used to accurately predict the circumferential location of extruded disk material in dogs with thoracolumbar intervertebral disk extrusion (IVDE) and to describe paradoxical contrast obstruction (PCO).

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—104 dogs with Hansen type I IVDE.

Procedures—Ventrodorsal myelographic views were reviewed, and contrast patterns were categorized according to 8 predetermined patterns. Agreement among observers was compared, and the predicted location of extruded disk material was compared with surgical findings.

Results—Agreement regarding myelographic pattern and location of extruded disk material was moderate (κ = 0.74 and 0.80, respectively) among the 4 observers. Ninety-three (89%) dogs had myelographic evidence of lateralized extrusion, and in 83 of the 93 (89%), predicted location of extruded disk material matched the surgically confirmed location. In 33 of the 40 (83%) dogs with bilateral contrast column gaps of unequal length, disk material was found to be located on the side with the shorter, rather than the longer, contrast gap, a phenomenon described as PCO.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that the ventrodorsal myelographic view could be used to predict the circumferential location of extruded disk material in dogs with thoracolumbar IVDE more often than previously reported. The PCO phenomenon may be useful in determining the side of lateralization when contrast material does not outline the extruded disk material.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association