Objective—To evaluate clinical variables assessed during the first 24 hours of hospitalization as prognostic indicators for nonambulatory cattle treated by use of a flotation tank.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—51 nonambulatory cattle that underwent flotation treatment.
Procedures—Signalment, history, serum biochemical analyses, patient behavior during flotation, and outcome data were collected from medical records. Outcome was survival to discharge from the hospital or nonsurvival (death or euthanasia). Data were analyzed by use of Wilcoxon rank sum, Fisher exact, and χ2 tests.
Results—19 of 51 cattle survived. Survivors and nonsurvivors did not differ significantly with regard to median weight; age; stage of lactation; duration of recumbency prior to flotation; serum potassium, ionized calcium, or phosphate concentrations at admission to the hospital; or serum creatine kinase activity (value at admission to the hospital, highest value, and last recorded value). Cattle that were able to walk out of the tank after the first flotation treatment were 4.8 times as likely to survive as those that could not. Cattle that did not eat during flotation treatment were 1.9 times as likely to die as those that ate. Cattle that stood apparently normally on all limbs during the first flotation treatment were 2.9 times as likely to survive as those that had an asymmetric stance or were unable to stand.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that objective variables evaluated during the first 24 hours of hospitalization and flotation treatment are associated with outcome among nonambulatory cattle; findings might assist in logical decision making with respect to treatment options.
Objective—To determine the apparent prevalence of shedding of Cryptosporidium spp in healthy alpaca crias and their dams on 14 farms in New York and 1 farm in Pennsylvania.
Animals—110 alpaca crias and their 110 dams.
Procedures—Fecal samples were obtained from 220 alpacas at 14 alpaca farms in New York and 1 farm in Pennsylvania. For each animal, age, sex, and health condition were recorded. A fecal score (1 = normally formed; 2 = soft or loose; 3 = diarrhetic) was recorded for each cria. Cryptosporidium oocysts were identified in fecal samples by a direct immunofluorescence assay.
Results—Apparent prevalence of fecal shedding of Cryptosporidium oocysts was 8% (95% confidence interval, 4% to 15%) in dams and was 7% (95% confidence interval, 3% to 13%) in crias. There was no significant difference in age between dams with positive fecal test results for Cryptosporidium oocysts (median age, 4 years; range, 3 to 8 years) and dams with negative results (median age, 4 years; range, 2.5 to 19 years). No significant difference was found in age between crias with positive fecal test results (median age, 20 days; range, 7 to 53 days) and those with negative results (median, 36 days; range, 2 to 111 days). No significant difference in fecal scores was found between crias with positive versus negative fecal test results.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A higher than previously reported apparent prevalence of fecal shedding of Cryptosporidium oocysts in healthy alpacas was found. A zoonotic risk should be considered, especially for Cryptosporidium parvum.
To assess the clinical efficacy and plasma concentrations of levetiracetam in a goat with seizures.
A 5-month-old doeling.
CLINICAL PRESENTATION, PROGRESSION, AND PROCEDURES
The goat was referred because of progressive anorexia and lethargy over 3 days. Clinical signs consisted of weakness, obtundation, opisthotonos, anisocoria, and cortical blindness. Initial evaluation was most consistent with polioencephalomalacia.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
Neurologic improvement occurred within 4 hours of thiamine administration, with appetite returning over 12 hours. On day 3 of hospitalization, the goat suffered acute onset repetitive seizures that were incompletely responsive to standard interventions over 3 hours. Administration of IV levetiracetam (60 mg/kg) produced resolution of seizure activity within 20 minutes. Levetiracetam was continued twice daily IV, then PO after day 6. Plasma concentrations were above or within therapeutic ranges (5 to 45 μg/mL) as previously established for other species, following both IV and PO levetiracetam. Oral administration (60 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) resulted in plasma levetiracetam concentrations of 48.1 μg/mL 2 hours after a dose and 23.4 μg/mL 2 hours prior to the next dose.
Levetiracetam is a newer anticonvulsant commonly used in humans and small animals due to its efficacy, cost, and wide safety margin. Its use has not previously been reported in domestic small ruminants. In this case, levetiracetam showed excellent clinical efficacy in the face of refractory seizures, with no apparent side effects. Plasma concentrations during oral administration were at the high end of the therapeutic range, indicating absorption in a nonmonogastric species. Further studies are warranted to determine optimal dosing in small ruminants.
Objective—To describe clinical signs and treatment outcomes for juvenile alpacas with spiral colon impaction (SCI).
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—12 juvenile (< 6 months old) camelids with SCI.
Procedures—Crias with SCI were identified by searching the medical records database of the Cornell University Equine and Farm Animal Hospital. A keyword-based search method was used. Inclusion required confirmation of SCI on the basis of surgical or necropsy findings. History, signalment, examination findings, diagnostic test results, medical treatments, and surgical reports as well as short- and long-term outcomes were reviewed. Peritoneal fluid parameters were compared with those of age-matched comparison crias in which SCI was suspected but ruled out at necropsy or exploratory celiotomy.
Results—12 crias with confirmed SCI were identified. Common clinical signs included lethargy and diarrhea. Abdominal distention was observed in 9 crias. In 3 crias, a mass in the region of the spiral colon was palpated. Seven crias underwent peritoneal fluid analysis; compared with age-matched comparison crias, SCI-affected crias had higher peritoneal fluid nucleated cell counts and nucleated cell count-to-total protein concentration ratios. A ventral midline celiotomy was performed in 9 crias; 7 underwent an enterotomy, and 2 underwent transmural infusion of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution with manual breakdown of ingesta; 3 of these crias survived for at least 6 months.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Crias with SCI that were not resolved by medical management had a poor prognosis. During celiotomy, transmural infusion of saline solution with manual breakdown of ingesta provided a less invasive alternative to enterotomy.