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A 3-year-old 17.5-kg (38.5-lb) mixed-breed dog was referred for evaluation because of nasal discharge, sneezing, and signs of nasal congestion of approximately 9 months’ duration. A diagnosis of nasopharyngeal stenosis (NPS) was made prior to referral.


Sneezing, bilateral mucopurulent nasal discharge, reduced nasal airflow, stertor, and increased inspiratory effort were noted on physical examination. Results of serum biochemical analysis were within respective reference ranges. Review of CT images of the skull revealed findings consistent with severe bilateral partial osseous choanal atresia and NPS. Retrograde rhinoscopy confirmed membranous NPS.


A ventral rhinotomy was performed; communication between the pharynx and nasal passageway was reestablished by surgical debridement of the caudal border of the palatine bone and vomerine crest and groove, followed by dissection of the membranous NPS and reconstruction of the caudal part of the nasopharynx. A covered nasopharyngeal stent was placed in the newly established nasopharynx. The dog recovered uneventfully but was presented 3 weeks later with recurrent signs; diagnostic findings were consistent with stenosis rostral to the stent. The stenosis was treated with balloon dilation, and a second covered stent was placed rostral to and overlapping the first stent, spanning the stenotic region. Eleven months after this procedure, the dog was doing well.


Results for this patient suggested that ventral rhinotomy and covered nasopharyngeal stent placement can be used successfully for the management of osseous choanal atresia in dogs; however, careful attention to preoperative planning and potential complications is necessary. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2021;259:190–196)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association



To evaluate the effects of withholding food on the results for measurements of serum concentrations of cobalamin, folate, canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI), and canine trypsin-like immunoreactivity (cTLI) in healthy dogs.


11 healthy employee- or student-owned dogs.


Food was withheld from the dogs for 12 hours, baseline blood samples were collected, then dogs were fed. Postprandial blood samples collected 1, 2, 4, and 8 hours later were assessed. A mixed-effects ANOVA model with fasting duration (time) as a fixed factor and dog as a random effect was fit for each analyte variable. Additionally, a mixed-effects ANOVA model controlling for the variable of time was fit to assess whether lipemia affected serum concentrations of the analytes.


The median serum cobalamin concentration was lower at 4 hours (428 ng/L) and 8 hours (429 ng/L) postprandially, compared with baseline (479 ng/L), but this difference was not clinically meaningful. Although there were no substantial differences in serum concentrations of folate, cPLI, or cTLI, postprandial changes in serum concentrations of cTLI or folate could potentially affect diagnoses in some dogs.


Although results indicated that feedings rarely resulted in clinically important differences in the median serum concentrations of cobalamin, folate, cPLI, or cTLI in healthy dogs, given the further processing required for lipemic samples, withholding food for at least 8 hours is an appropriate recommendation when measuring these analytes. Similar research is needed in dogs with gastrointestinal disease to determine whether the withholding of food is necessary when measuring these analytes in affected dogs.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research