Objective—To assess performance of a portable bioimpedance monitor for measurement of body composition in dogs.
Animals—24 client-owned dogs.
Procedures—Percentage body fat was measured via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and with a portable bioimpedance monitor, and body condition score (BCS) was measured by use of a 9-integer scale.
Results—Although the precision of the bioimpedance monitor was good, this varied among dogs. Body position (standing vs sternal) had no effect on bioimpedance results. There was a significant association between results determined via DEXA and bioimpedance, but this association was weaker than between DEXA and BCS. When agreement was assessed via Bland-Altman plot, the bioimpedance monitor under- and overestimated values at high and low body fat percentages, respectively. In 9 dogs, body fat measurements were taken before and after weight loss to determine the proportional loss of tissue mass during weight management. There was a significant difference in the estimated percentage of weight lost as fat between the DEXA and bioimpedance methods.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although percentage body fat measured by use of a portable bioimpedance monitor correlated well with values determined via DEXA, the imprecision and inaccuracy in dogs with high percentage body fat could make the monitor inappropriate for clinical practice.
To compare clinical, endoscopic, and histopathologic features between dogs with chronic gastritis (CG) with and without lymphofollicular hyperplasia (LFH).
64 and 56 dogs with CG with (cases) and without (controls) LFH, respectively.
The medical record database of a referral clinic was searched to identify dogs that underwent endoscopic examination of the upper portion of the gastrointestinal tract and were subsequently determined to have CG with or without LFH between October 2006 and February 2011. Signalment and clinical, endoscopic, and histologic findings were compared between cases and controls. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with CG with LFH.
Compared with controls, cases were significantly younger and more likely to be of a brachycephalic phenotype. The proportions of dogs with a poor body condition or diarrhea were significantly lower and the proportions of dogs with inspiratory dyspnea, exercise intolerance, or hyperemia and discoloration of the gastric mucosa were significantly higher for the case group, compared with the control group. Inspiratory dyspnea, gastric mucosal hyperemia, and gastritis severity were positively associated, whereas poor body condition was negatively associated, with CG with LFH on multivariable logistic regression.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
The strong positive association between inspiratory dyspnea and CG with LFH suggested that the condition may be a consequence of an increase in negative intrathoracic pressure rather than a distinct clinical entity. Prospective studies are warranted to elucidate the mechanism by which inspiratory dyspnea contributes to the development of CG with LFH.
To perform a retrospective, multicenter observational study that compares the agreement of rectal temperature with the temperature measured with noncontact infrared thermometer (NCIT) in a population of dogs and cats.
168 dogs and 61 cats.
NCIT readings were taken in triplicate from the medial pinna, then rectal temperature was taken with a standard digital rectal thermometer (RT). Ambient room temperature, signalment, presence of icterus, skin and coat color, reason for presentation, and final diagnosis were recorded.
In dogs, median (range) body temperature reflected by RT and NCIT measurements was 38.4 °C (33.4 to 40.3 °C) and 36.3 °C (30.8 to 40.0 °C), respectively. In cats, median (range) body temperature reflected by RT and NCIT measurements was 38.3 °C (36.2 to 40.0 °C) and 35.7 °C (31.8 to 38.0 °C), respectively. There was a weak positive correlation between body temperatures measured by NCIT and RT in dogs (Kendall tau = 0.154), but there was no correlation in cats (Kendall tau = –0.01). A significant, albeit weak, agreement was seen between temperature measured by NCIT and RT in dogs (Kappa value, 0.05), but not cats (Kappa value, –0.08). In both species, NCIT tended to underread body temperature, compared with RT (dogs: mean ± SD bias –2.2 ± 1.51 °C; cats: mean bias –2.7 ± 1.44 °C), with the degree of low measurements lessening as body temperature increased.
Given both poor correlation and agreement in body temperature measured by NCIT and rectal thermometer, NCIT measurements cannot be recommended at the current time as a means to determine body temperature in dogs and cats.
Objective—To determine whether clinical and clinicopathologic data could assist differentiation of congenital portosystemic shunts (CPSSs) from acquired portosystemic shunts (APSSs) in young dogs.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—Dogs < 30 months of age with CPSSs (n = 62) or APSSs (31).
Procedures—Medical records from 3 referral centers identified 31 dogs with APSSs and 62 dogs with CPSSs diagnosed from July 2003 to July 2008. Signalment, clinical signs, physical examination, and clinicopathological data were recorded, and statistical analyses were performed to determine differences between groups.
Results—Univariable analysis showed APSS patients were older, heavier, and in poorer body condition, compared with CPSS patients. In CPSS patients, diarrhea was less prevalent, and neurologic signs were more prevalent. Ascites was more prevalent in APSS (Fisher exact test; OR, 50.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.2 to 409.7), with no significant difference in albumin concentration between groups. The logistic regression model used to assess clinicopathological parameters showed lower Hct (OR, 1.42 × 10−12; 95% CI, 1.42 × 10−17 to 4.0 × 10−6), higher mean corpuscular volume (OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.50), and higher alanine aminotransferase concentrations (OR, 1.005; 95% CI, 1.001 to 1.009) were more likely in APSS patients.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Several clinicopathologic differences between dogs with congenital and acquired shunts were identified; however, assessed alone, these would be unlikely to enable differentiation between the 2 conditions. Awareness of the rarity of ascites in CPSS cases should prompt recognition of a likely diagnosis of APSS, allowing the veterinarian to target further diagnostics and counsel the owner appropriately.
Objective—To compare treatment protocols for chronic enteropathy and concurrent protein-losing enteropathy that used prednisolone in conjunction with either azathioprine or chlorambucil in dogs.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Procedures—All dogs had hypoalbuminemia (serum albumin concentration, < 18.0 g/L) and chronic enteropathy as diagnosed via complete gastrointestinal tract investigations including intestinal biopsy. Dogs received either an azathioprine-prednisolone combination (group A; n = 13) or a chlorambucil-prednisolone combination (group C; 14). Response to treatment was assessed by evaluation of body weight gain, serum albumin concentration, and duration of primary treatment.
Results—No significant pretreatment differences were detected between groups for any baseline variable (signalment and weight), clinicopathologic variable (albumin, cobalamin, and folate concentrations), or histopathologic findings. After treatment, serum albumin concentration and weight gain were significantly greater in group C. Median survival time for group A dogs was 30 days (95% confidence interval, 15 to 45 days) and was not reached for group C dogs. Duration of primary treatment was positively associated with the histopathologic presence of mild lacteal dilatation and use of a chlorambucil-prednisolone combination.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that a chlorambucil-prednisolone protocol is more efficacious for treatment of chronic enteropathy and concurrent protein-losing enteropathy, compared with an azathioprine-prednisolone combination. Given these findings, a prospective randomized clinical trial is warranted.
Objective—To identify the most frequent underlying diseases in dogs examined because of dyspnea and determine whether signalment, clinical signs, and duration of clinical signs might help guide assessment of the underlying condition and prognosis.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—229 dogs with dyspnea.
Procedures—Case records of dogs referred for dyspnea were reviewed and grouped according to location or etiology (upper airway, lower respiratory tract, pleural space, cardiac diseases, or obesity and stress). Signalment, clinical signs at initial examination, treatment, and survival time were analyzed.
Results—Upper airway (n = 74 [32%]) and lower respiratory tract (76 [33%]) disease were the most common diagnoses, followed by pleural space (44 [19%]) and cardiac (27 [12%]) diseases. Dogs with upper airway and pleural space disease were significantly younger than dogs with lower respiratory tract and cardiac diseases. Dogs with lower respiratory tract and associated systemic diseases were significantly less likely to be discharged from the hospital. Dogs with diseases that were treated surgically had a significantly better outcome than did medically treated patients, which were significantly more likely to be examined on an emergency basis with short duration of clinical signs.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—In dogs examined because of dyspnea, young dogs may be examined more frequently with breed-associated upper respiratory tract obstruction or pleural space disease after trauma, whereas older dogs may be seen more commonly with progressive lower respiratory tract or acquired cardiac diseases. Nontraumatic acute onset dyspnea is often associated with a poor prognosis, but stabilization, especially in patients with cardiac disease, is possible. Obesity can be an important contributing or exacerbating factor in dyspneic dogs.