An 8-year-old spayed female Dalmatian was evaluated because of recurrent urinary tract infections following ureteral stent placement 3 years earlier.
Polyuria, pollakiuria, and hematuria were reported by the owner. Abdominal radiography revealed well-defined, faintly mineralized material superimposed over the distal portion of the previously placed ureteral stent. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed thickening of the bladder wall, right hydroureter, and right pyelectasia; the ureteral stent appeared to extend into a region containing cystic calculi. Cystoscopy revealed small uroliths and mineralized encrustation of the distal portion of the ureteral stent.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME
A holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser was used to fragment mineralized material from the distal end of the stent and allow endoscopic transurethral removal. Stone analysis revealed ammonium urate as the major component of the mineralized material. The owner was instructed to feed the dog a diet formulated to decrease the likelihood of urate stone recurrence and to administer marbofloxacin for 6 weeks because of suspected pyelonephritis. Follow-up bacterial culture of a urine sample and abdominal ultrasonography revealed resolution of urinary tract infection, pyelectasia, hydroureter, and associated clinical signs.
Results suggested that endoscopic-guided laser lithotripsy can be used as a minimally invasive alternative to surgery for removal of severely encrusted ureteral stents in dogs.
To biomechanically assess outcomes for 2 percutaneous gastropexy techniques and determine the amount of time necessary to perform the techniques for securing percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tubes in canine cadavers.
18 canine cadavers.
6 cadavers were assigned to each of 3 groups (PEG tube only, PEG tube with T-fastener gastropexy, and PEG tube with U-stitch gastropexy). Time to completion of placement of a PEG tube and gastropexy was recorded. After tubes were placed, the stomach and body wall on the left side of the abdomen were removed and biomechanically tested. Maximum tension at the time of initial failure of the PEG tube or gastropexy was recorded.
Significantly more force was required to induce failure for the T-fastener and U-stitch techniques than for the PEG tube only technique. In addition, both the T-fastener and U-stitch techniques required significantly more time for placement than did the PEG tube only technique.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results suggested that performing a T-fastener or U-stitch gastropexy may decrease the risk of early dislodgement of a PEG tube in dogs. However, studies conducted with these techniques in live dogs would be necessary to confirm this hypothesis. The additional amount of time needed to perform the T-fastener or U-stitch gastropexy would likely be clinically unimportant.
CASE DESCRIPTION A 10-year-old neutered male mixed-breed dog was evaluated for a 5-year history of intermittent hematochezia and chronic anemia that were unresponsive to medical treatment.
CLINICAL FINDINGS Colonoscopy revealed multifocal areas of coalescing tortuous mucosal blood vessels throughout the colon and rectum. Colonic vascular ectasia (angiodysplasia) was diagnosed on the basis of the endoscopic appearance of the lesions.
TREATMENT AND OUTCOME The dog failed to respond to traditional medical treatments for colonic vascular ectasia and required multiple plasma and blood transfusions. The dog received 4 endoscopic-assisted argon plasma coagulation treatments, which resulted in long-term resolution of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Colonic perforation occurred during the third argon plasma coagulation treatment. The perforation was surgically repaired. The dog remained free from clinical signs of colonic vascular ectasia for > 1 year after the third argon plasma coagulation treatment and was euthanized because of clinical deterioration associated with progressive heart disease.
CLINICAL RELEVANCE Endoscopic-assisted argon plasma coagulation treatment is a novel treatment for dogs with colonic vascular ectasia and provided long-term resolution of clinical signs for the dog of this report. In human patients, complications associated with endoscopic-assisted argon plasma coagulation treatment include colonic perforation, which also occurred in the dog of this report.
Objective—To determine response rates and survival
times for cats with lymphoma treated with the University
of Wisconsin-Madison chemotherapy protocol.
Animals—38 cats with lymphoma.
Procedure—Medical records were reviewed, and
information on age, sex, breed, FeLV and FIV infection
status, anatomic form, clinical stage, and survival
time was obtained. Immunophenotyping was
Results—Mean ± SD age of the cats was 10.9 ± 4.4
years. Overall median survival time was 210 days
(interquartile range, 90 to 657 days), and overall duration
of first remission was 156 days (interquartile
range, 87 to 316 days). Age, sex, anatomic form, and
clinical stage were not significantly associated with
duration of first remission or survival time. Eighteen
of the 38 (47%) cats had complete remission, 14
(37%) had partial remission, and 6 (16%) had no
response. Duration of first remission was significantly
longer for cats with complete remission (654 days)
than for cats with partial remission (114 days). Median
survival time for cats with complete remission (654
days) was significantly longer than median survival
time for cats with partial remission (122 days) and for
cats with no response (11 days).
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested
that a high percentage of cats with lymphoma
will respond to treatment with the University of
Wisconsin-Madison chemotherapy protocol. Age,
sex, anatomic form, and clinical stage were not significantly
associated with duration of first response or
survival time, but initial response to treatment was.
(J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1118–1122)