Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 6 of 6 items for

  • Author or Editor: Alexander E. Gallagher x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To biomechanically assess outcomes for 2 percutaneous gastropexy techniques and determine the amount of time necessary to perform the techniques for securing percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tubes in canine cadavers.

ANIMALS

18 canine cadavers.

PROCEDURES

6 cadavers were assigned to each of 3 groups (PEG tube only, PEG tube with T-fastener gastropexy, and PEG tube with U-stitch gastropexy). Time to completion of placement of a PEG tube and gastropexy was recorded. After tubes were placed, the stomach and body wall on the left side of the abdomen were removed and biomechanically tested. Maximum tension at the time of initial failure of the PEG tube or gastropexy was recorded.

RESULTS

Significantly more force was required to induce failure for the T-fastener and U-stitch techniques than for the PEG tube only technique. In addition, both the T-fastener and U-stitch techniques required significantly more time for placement than did the PEG tube only technique.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested that performing a T-fastener or U-stitch gastropexy may decrease the risk of early dislodgement of a PEG tube in dogs. However, studies conducted with these techniques in live dogs would be necessary to confirm this hypothesis. The additional amount of time needed to perform the T-fastener or U-stitch gastropexy would likely be clinically unimportant.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION

An 8-year-old spayed female Dalmatian was evaluated because of recurrent urinary tract infections following ureteral stent placement 3 years earlier.

CLINICAL FINDINGS

Polyuria, pollakiuria, and hematuria were reported by the owner. Abdominal radiography revealed well-defined, faintly mineralized material superimposed over the distal portion of the previously placed ureteral stent. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed thickening of the bladder wall, right hydroureter, and right pyelectasia; the ureteral stent appeared to extend into a region containing cystic calculi. Cystoscopy revealed small uroliths and mineralized encrustation of the distal portion of the ureteral stent.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME

A holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser was used to fragment mineralized material from the distal end of the stent and allow endoscopic transurethral removal. Stone analysis revealed ammonium urate as the major component of the mineralized material. The owner was instructed to feed the dog a diet formulated to decrease the likelihood of urate stone recurrence and to administer marbofloxacin for 6 weeks because of suspected pyelonephritis. Follow-up bacterial culture of a urine sample and abdominal ultrasonography revealed resolution of urinary tract infection, pyelectasia, hydroureter, and associated clinical signs.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results suggested that endoscopic-guided laser lithotripsy can be used as a minimally invasive alternative to surgery for removal of severely encrusted ureteral stents in dogs.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

CASE DESCRIPTION A 10-year-old neutered male mixed-breed dog was evaluated for a 5-year history of intermittent hematochezia and chronic anemia that were unresponsive to medical treatment.

CLINICAL FINDINGS Colonoscopy revealed multifocal areas of coalescing tortuous mucosal blood vessels throughout the colon and rectum. Colonic vascular ectasia (angiodysplasia) was diagnosed on the basis of the endoscopic appearance of the lesions.

TREATMENT AND OUTCOME The dog failed to respond to traditional medical treatments for colonic vascular ectasia and required multiple plasma and blood transfusions. The dog received 4 endoscopic-assisted argon plasma coagulation treatments, which resulted in long-term resolution of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Colonic perforation occurred during the third argon plasma coagulation treatment. The perforation was surgically repaired. The dog remained free from clinical signs of colonic vascular ectasia for > 1 year after the third argon plasma coagulation treatment and was euthanized because of clinical deterioration associated with progressive heart disease.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE Endoscopic-assisted argon plasma coagulation treatment is a novel treatment for dogs with colonic vascular ectasia and provided long-term resolution of clinical signs for the dog of this report. In human patients, complications associated with endoscopic-assisted argon plasma coagulation treatment include colonic perforation, which also occurred in the dog of this report.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To determine response rates and survival times for cats with lymphoma treated with the University of Wisconsin-Madison chemotherapy protocol.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—38 cats with lymphoma.

Procedure—Medical records were reviewed, and information on age, sex, breed, FeLV and FIV infection status, anatomic form, clinical stage, and survival time was obtained. Immunophenotyping was not performed.

Results—Mean ± SD age of the cats was 10.9 ± 4.4 years. Overall median survival time was 210 days (interquartile range, 90 to 657 days), and overall duration of first remission was 156 days (interquartile range, 87 to 316 days). Age, sex, anatomic form, and clinical stage were not significantly associated with duration of first remission or survival time. Eighteen of the 38 (47%) cats had complete remission, 14 (37%) had partial remission, and 6 (16%) had no response. Duration of first remission was significantly longer for cats with complete remission (654 days) than for cats with partial remission (114 days). Median survival time for cats with complete remission (654 days) was significantly longer than median survival time for cats with partial remission (122 days) and for cats with no response (11 days).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that a high percentage of cats with lymphoma will respond to treatment with the University of Wisconsin-Madison chemotherapy protocol. Age, sex, anatomic form, and clinical stage were not significantly associated with duration of first response or survival time, but initial response to treatment was. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2005;227:1118–1122)

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine the feasibility of endoscopic application of fibrin glue for the treatment of experimentally induced postintubation tracheal laceration (PITL) in feline cadavers. The secondary objective was to determine the optimal technique for application of the fibrin glue.

ANIMALS

20 feline cadavers (n = 10 fresh and 10 frozen).

PROCEDURES

An experimentally induced tracheal rupture was created via overinflation of an endotracheal tube cuff. After endoscopic identification of the tracheal tear, fibrin glue was instilled into the tracheal defect in either a bridging or filling fashion. Following the procedure, the airway of each cat was examined and leak tested. Length of tear, volume of glue applied, procedural time, and glue efficacy were recorded.

RESULTS

Experimentally induced tracheal lacerations were full thickness with a mean length of 3.27 ± 0.96 cm. A complete seal was attained in 6 of the 9 fresh cadavers when filling the defect with fibrin glue. In the remaining 3 fresh cadavers, air leakage was restricted to the dorsal mediastinum. Bridging the defect with fibrin glue did not attain a seal in fresh or frozen cadavers. The median volume of glue used to fill defects in fresh cadavers was 0.5 mL (range, 0.4 to 2 mL). Procedural time for the application of fibrin glue was 10.5 ± 4.1 minutes for bridging the defect and 7.8 ± 1.5 minutes for filling the defect.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Endoscopic application of fibrin glue may be a feasible method of treatment for PITL in cats.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

SUMMARY

Fourteen adult beavers (Castor canadensis) weighing 16.5 ± 4.14 kg (mean ± sd) were anesthetized for surgical implantation of radio telemetry devices. Beavers were anesthetized with diazepam (0.1 mg/kg) and ketamine (25 mg/kg) administered im, which provided smooth anesthetic induction and facilitated tracheal intubation. Anesthesia was maintained with halothane in oxygen via a semiclosed circle anesthetic circuit. Values for heart rate, respiratory rate, esophageal temperature, direct arterial blood pressure, end-tidal halothane concentration, and end-tidal CO2 tension were recorded every 15 minutes during the surgical procedure. Arterial blood samples were collected every 30 minutes to determine pH, PaO2 , and PaCO2 . Values for plasma bicarbonate, total CO2, and base excess were calculated. Ventilation was spontaneous in 7 beavers and controlled to maintain normocapnia (PaCO2 approx 40 mm of Hg) in 7 others. Vaporizer settings were adjusted to maintain a light surgical plane of anesthesia. Throughout the surgical procedure, all beavers had mean arterial pressure < 60 mm of Hg and esophageal temperature < 35 C. Mean values for arterial pH, end-tidal CO2, PaO2 , and PaCO2 were significantly (P < 0.05) different in spontaneously ventilating beavers, compared with those in which ventilation was controlled. Respiratory acidosis during halothane anesthesia was observed in spontaneously ventilating beavers, but not in beavers maintained with controlled ventilation. All beavers recovered unremarkably from anesthesia.

Free access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research