Objective—To identify the normal gastric acid secretion
profile in dogs and determine the degree of gastric
acid suppression associated with 4 gastric acid
Animals—12 healthy Beagles.
Procedure—Intragastric pH was measured continuously
for 24-hour periods with a digital recording system
placed via a gastrostomy tube. Baseline measurements
were obtained when food was withheld
and when dogs were fed a standard diet. Dogs were
then treated with ranitidine (2 mg/kg, IV, q 12 h),
famotidine (0.5 mg/kg, IV, q 12 h), pantoprazole
(1 mg/kg, IV, q 24 h), omeprazole (1 mg/kg, PO, q 24
h), or saline solution for 7 days; intragastric pH was
recorded on days 0, 2, and 6. Subsequently, the
effects of administering famotidine (0.5 mg/kg, IV, q 8
h; 6 dogs) and omeprazole as a suspension (1 mg/kg,
PO, q 12 h; 6 dogs) were evaluated. Median 24-hour
intragastric pH, percentage of time pH was ≥ 3, and
percentage of time pH was ≥ 4 were determined.
Results—Median pH, percentage of time pH was ≥ 3,
and percentage of time pH was ≥ 4 were all significantly
higher when food was withheld than when
dogs were fed. Famotidine, pantoprazole, and
omeprazole significantly suppressed gastric acid
secretion, compared with saline solution, as determined
on the basis of median 24-hour pH and percentages
of time pH was ≥ 3 or ≥ 4. However, ranitidine
did not. Omeprazole suspension suppressed
gastric acid secretion.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest
that in healthy dogs, famotidine, pantoprazole,
and omeprazole significantly suppress gastric acid
secretion. Twice daily administration of a suspension
of omeprazole, was the only regimen tested that
approached the potential therapeutic efficacy for acidrelated
disease when assessed by criteria used for
human patients. (Am J Vet Res 2005;66:425–431)
Objective—To determine the effectiveness and safety of 2 sedative-analgesic protocols to facilitate assisted ventilation in healthy dogs.
Animals—12 healthy dogs.
Procedures—Dogs were randomly assigned to 2 groups. Mean dosages for protocol 1 were diazepam (0.5 mg/kg/h [n = 3 dogs]) or midazolam (0.5 mg/kg/h ), morphine (0.6 mg/kg/h ), and medetomidine (1.0 μg/kg/h ). Mean dosages for protocol 2 were diazepam (0.5 mg/kg/h [n = 3]) or midazolam (0.5 mg/kg/h ), fentanyl (18 μg/kg/h ), and propofol (2.5 mg/kg/h ). Each dog received the drugs for 24 consecutive hours. All dogs were mechanically ventilated with adjustments in minute volume to maintain normocapnia and normoxemia. Cardiorespiratory variables were recorded. A numeric comfort score was assigned hourly to assess efficacy. Mouth care, position change, and physiotherapy were performed every 6 hours. Urine output was measured every 4 hours.
Results—Use of both protocols maintained dogs within optimal comfort ranges > 85% of the time. The first dog in each group was excluded from the study. Significant decreases in heart rate, oxygen consumption, and oxygen extraction ratio were evident for protocol 1. Cardiac index values in ventilated dogs were lower than values reported for healthy unsedated dogs. Oxygen delivery, lactate concentration, and arterial base excess remained within reference ranges for both protocols.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Use of both protocols was effective for facilitating mechanical ventilation. A reduction in cardiac index was detected for both protocols as a result of bradycardia. However, oxygen delivery and global tissue perfusion were not negatively affected.
Case Description—Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was isolated from the tracheostomy tube of an 18-month-old castrated male Golden Retriever in the intensive care unit (ICU) of the Ontario Veterinary College. This prompted an investigation of MRSA colonization in other animals in the ICU.
Clinical Findings—On day 1 of the investigation, MRSA was isolated from nasal swabs obtained from 2 of 10 animals (2/7 dogs and 0/3 cats), including the index case. Subsequently, MRSA was isolated from 3 of 12 animals on day 9; 3 of 9 animals on day 13; and none of 14, 5, and 6 animals on day 20, 27, and 78, respectively. Overall, MRSA was isolated from 6 of 26 (23%) animals during the outbreak period (4/22 dogs and 2/4 cats). The apparent incidence of MRSA acquisition in the ICU from days 1 through 13 was 20% (5/25 animals). No clinical signs of MRSA infections developed. All isolates were indistinguishable from one another.
Treatment and Outcome—Infection-control measures including active surveillance of all animals in the ICU, barrier precautions, and hand hygiene were used to control the apparent outbreak.
Clinical Relevance—Methicillin-resistant S aureus is an emerging problem in veterinary medicine. Intensive care units may be at particular risk for periodic outbreaks of colonization and disease. The outbreak of this report highlights the potential for clinically inapparent transmission of MRSA within a facility; infection-control measures that might facilitate MRSA eradication should be considered in ICU settings.
Objective—To describe the effects of prednisone and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) on results of thromboelastography in healthy dogs.
Animals—16 male mixed-breed dogs.
Procedures—Dogs were randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups (4 dogs/group) that received prednisone (median dose, 2.07 mg/kg), ASA (median dose, 0.51 mg/kg), or both drugs, PO, every 24 hours from days 0 through 6. Another group received no treatment (control dogs; n = 4). Thromboelastography variables (reaction time, clotting time, α-angle, maximum amplitude [MA], global clot strength, coagulation index, and percentage of clot lysis at 60 minutes [CL60]) were evaluated in blood samples collected (prior to drug administration in treated dogs) on days 0 (baseline), 2, 4, and 6.
Results—Administration of ASA alone did not alter TEG variables. For treatment effect, mean global clot strength was increased in the prednisone and drug combination groups, compared with values for control dogs; MA was also increased in the prednisone and drug combination groups, compared with that of controls. For treatment-by-time effect, median CL60 was increased in the prednisone group on day 6, compared with baseline value in the same dogs and with median CL60 of the control group on day 6. Median CL60 was also increased in the drug combination group on day 6, compared with the baseline value and with that of the control group on day 6.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Prednisone administered at approximately 2 mg/kg/d, PO, for 7 days with or without concurrently administered ASA increased clot strength and decreased clot lysis in healthy dogs.
To describe daily changes in serum concentrations of hyaluronic acid (HA), a biomarker of endothelial glycocalyx degradation, in dogs with septic peritonitis and to determine whether relationships exist among serum concentrations of HA and biomarkers of inflammation and patient fluid status.
8 client-owned dogs.
Serum samples that had been collected for a previous study and stored at −80°C were used. Blood samples were collected at admission and daily thereafter during hospitalization and were analyzed for concentrations of HA and interleukins 6, 8, and 10. Patient data including acute patient physiologic and laboratory evaluation score, type and amount of fluids administered daily, and daily CBC and lactate concentration results were recorded. To determine the significant predictors of HA concentration, a general linear mixed model for repeated measures was developed.
All dogs survived to discharge. Concentrations of HA ranged from 18 to 1,050 ng/mL (interquartile [25th to 75th percentile] range, 49 to 119 ng/mL) throughout hospitalization. Interleukin-6 concentration was a significant predictor of HA concentration as was total administered daily fluid volume when accounting for interleukin-6 concentration. When fluid volume was analyzed independent of inflammatory status, fluid volume was not a significant predictor. Concentrations of HA did not significantly change over time but tended to increase on day 2 or 3 of hospitalization.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE
Results supported the theory that inflammation is associated with endothelial glycocalyx degradation. Dogs recovering from septic peritonitis may become more susceptible to further endothelial glycocalyx damage as increasing fluid volumes are administered.
Objective—To compare electroencephalography (EEG) artifact associated with use of the subdermal wire electrode (SWE), gold cup electrode (GCE), and subdermal needle electrode (SNE) over an 8-hour period in sedated and awake dogs.
Animals—6 healthy dogs.
Procedures—8 EEG channels were recorded during 20-minute video-EEG recording sessions (intermittently at 0.5, 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours) with and without chlorpromazine sedation. Nonphysiologic artifacts were identified. Duration of artifact was summed for each channel. Number of unaffected channels (NUC) was determined.
Results—NUC was significantly affected by electrode type and sedation over time; median for SWE (2.80 channels; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84 to 5.70 channels) was significantly different from medians for GCE (7.87 channels; 95% CI, 7.44 to 7.94 channels) and SNE (7.60 channels; 95% CI, 6.61 to 7.89 channels). After 4 hours, NUC decreased in awake dogs, regardless of electrode type. In awake dogs, duration of artifact differed significantly between SWE and GCE or SNE; medians at 8 hours were 61.55 seconds (95% CI, 21.81 to 173.65 seconds), 1.33 seconds (95% CI, 0.47 to 3.75 seconds), and 21.01 seconds (95% CI, 6.85 to 64.42 seconds), respectively.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The SWE had a significant duration of artifact during recording periods > 2 hours, compared with results for the GCE and SNE, in awake dogs. The GCE, SNE, and sedation resulted in significantly more channels unaffected by artifact. For longer recordings, caution should be exercised in selecting EEG electrodes and sedation state, although differences among electrodes may not be clinically relevant.
OBJECTIVE To evaluate peripheral blood and abdominal fluid variables as predictors of intestinal surgical site failure in dogs with septic peritonitis following celiotomy and closed-suction abdominal drain (CSAD) placement.
DESIGN Prospective study.
ANIMALS 26 dogs with septic peritonitis that underwent celiotomy and CSAD placement.
PROCEDURES Abdominal fluid and blood samples were collected prior to surgery and daily thereafter until CSAD removal. Abdominal fluid was collected through the CSAD. Analysis of all samples included pH, PCO2, PO2, PCV, WBC count, and total solids, glucose, lactate, and electrolyte concentrations. Abdominal fluid samples also underwent cytologic evaluation and bacterial culture, and the volume of fluid removed through the drain was recorded daily. The blood-to-fluid glucose and lactate differences, fluid-to-blood lactate ratio and blood-to-fluid WBC and neutrophil ratios were determined daily. Dogs were categorized into 2 groups on the basis of whether they had an uneventful recovery (UR) or developed postoperative septic peritonitis (POSP).
RESULTS 23 dogs had a UR and 3 developed POSP. On the third day after surgery, the abdominal fluid WBC count was significantly lower and the blood-to-fluid WBC and neutrophil ratios were significantly higher for dogs in the POSP group, compared with those for dogs in the UR group. None of the other blood and abdominal fluid variables assessed differed significantly between the 2 groups.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results failed to identify any objective predictive indicators for POSP in dogs with CSADs. Use of blood-to-fluid WBC and neutrophil ratios as predictive indicators for POSP requires further investigation.