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  • Author or Editor: Alex M. Lynch x
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Abstract

Objective—To describe transfusion practices for treatment of dogs undergoing splenectomy for splenic masses.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—542 client-owned dogs.

Procedures—Medical records of dogs that underwent splenectomy for splenic masses at 2 referral institutions were reviewed. Variables of interest were compared between dogs that did and did not undergo transfusion. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to assess associations of transfusion with death during hospitalization and with 30- and 180-day survival rates.

Results—Transfusions were administered to 240 of 542 (44%) dogs; packed RBCs were the most frequently administered blood product. On admission, dogs that subsequently received transfusions had higher mean illness severity score, heart rate, respiratory rate, blood lactate concentration, and prothrombin time, with lower mean PCV, platelet count, serum total solids and albumin concentrations, and base deficit than dogs that did not receive transfusions. Hemoperitoneum and malignancy, especially hemangiosarcoma, were more common in the transfusion group. Overall, 500 of 542 (92%) dogs survived to discharge. Dogs that received transfusions had higher odds of death or euthanasia while hospitalized and lower odds of surviving to 30 or 180 days after hospital discharge than dogs that did not.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Evidence of shock, anemia, and hypocoagulability were apparent triggers for the decision to perform blood transfusion in dogs undergoing splenectomy for splenic masses and were likely attributable to hemoperitoneum and related hypovolemia. Dogs undergoing transfusion more commonly had malignant disease and had greater odds of poor long-term outcome, compared with dogs that did not undergo transfusion.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To describe transfusion practices for treatment of dogs hospitalized because of traumatic injuries.

Design—Retrospective case series.

Animals—125 client-owned dogs.

Procedures—Medical records of dogs that sustained trauma and were hospitalized for ≥ 24 hours after emergency stabilization were reviewed. Admission characteristics and transfusion-specific data were assessed. Receiver operating characteristic curves were plotted to evaluate diagnostic utility of PCV and serum total solids concentration as predictors of transfusion in the study population.

Results—45 of 125 (36%) dogs received transfusions. Packed RBCs were the most commonly administered blood product (42/45 [93%]). Common reasons for transfusion included perioperative hemodynamic support and treatment of shock or worsening anemia. Dogs that underwent transfusion had higher mean heart rate, blood lactate concentration, and animal trauma triage scores, with lower mean PCV, serum total solids concentration, and rectal temperature at admission than dogs that did not undergo transfusion. Total solids concentration and PCV at admission were specific but insensitive predictors of subsequent transfusion. Most (109/125 [87%]) dogs survived to hospital discharge. Significantly fewer dogs that had transfusions survived, compared with dogs that did not have transfusions. Seven of 10 dogs that received massive transfusions survived to discharge.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Apparent clinical triggers for the decision to perform blood transfusion in dogs hospitalized following traumatic injury included evidence of shock or worsening anemia on admission and requirement for perioperative hemodynamic optimization. Although dogs that received transfusions had a lower survival rate than dogs that did not, this was likely attributable to greater severity of injuries in the transfusion group.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The primary goal was to compare the efficacy of administration of apomorphine (APO) administered by intranasal (IN), transconjunctival (TC), SC and IV routes with ropinirole eye drops for induction of emesis in dogs with a secondary goal to evaluate the time of emesis as well as difficulty in administration.

ANIMALS

125 client-owned dogs.

METHODS

Dogs were randomly enrolled between October 1, 2021, and March 30, 2022, into groups of 25: IV APO, IN APO, TC APO, SC APO, and ropinirole eye drops. The IV, SC, and TC groups were dosed at 0.03 mg/kg, the IN group was dosed at 0.06 mg/kg, and the ropinirole group was dosed according to manufacturer guidelines. Data collected included success rate of emesis within 600 seconds, time to emesis, time to administer, and difficulty score. Results were compared to IV with P values and CIs being adjusted for multiple comparisons.

RESULTS

Emesis was successful within 600 seconds using IV APO in 22 of 25 dogs. By comparison, IN APO induced emesis in 18 of 25 dogs (P = .63). Ropinirole (14/25), SC APO (6/25), and TC APO (4/25) were significantly less successful (P = .047, P = < .001, and P < 0.001, respectively). When emesis was successful, it occurred most rapidly with TC APO, followed by IN APO and then ropinirole. It was most difficult to administer IV APO and TC APO.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Similar to IV APO, IN APO was a rapid, easy, and effective method of inducing emesis in dogs and should be considered when IV administration is not possible. Ropinirole was easy to administer but successfully induced emesis less reliably within a 10-minute timeframe. APO administered TC using the commercially compounded injectable formulation was ineffective.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Determine the hemolytic effect of an 18-µm microaggregate blood filter during in vitro sea turtle whole blood transfusions as well as describe the average diameter of leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) and Kemp’s ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys kempii) RBCs.

ANIMALS

5 green (Chelonia mydas), 5 loggerhead (Caretta caretta), and 5 Kemp’s ridley sea turtles (total n = 15).

METHODS

Heparinized sea turtle blood was infused at 60 mL/h through a microbore extension set without and then with a postsyringe, inline 18-µm microaggregate blood filter. Pre- and postfiltration PCV, Hct, total solids, sodium, chloride, potassium, glucose, and free plasma hemoglobin concentrations were measured. With the use of light microscopy and archived blood smears, the maximum and minimum diameter of 20 RBCs from each of the 5 leatherback and 5 Kemp’s ridley sea turtles were measured with a calibrated ocular micrometer using 400X magnification.

RESULTS

There were no significant differences between pre- and postfiltration samples for Hct, total solids, sodium, chloride, potassium, glucose, and free plasma hemoglobin concentrations; however, there was a significant median postfiltration decrease in PCV of approximately 4%, representing a 13% decrease of the total RBCs transfused. Average maximum diameters for leatherback and Kemp’s ridley sea turtle RBCs were 19.7 and 16.1 µm, respectively.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Although the 18-µm microaggregate blood filter does not hemolyze transfused sea turtle RBCs and is likely safe for in vivo blood transfusions, the filter’s pores may retain a small proportion of infused RBCs given their diameter.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research