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  • Author or Editor: Alejandro Rodriguez x
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Abstract

Objective—To quantitate the dose- and time-related effects of IV administration of xylazine and detomidine on urine characteristics in horses deprived of feed and water.

Animals—6 horses.

Procedure—Feed and water were withheld for 24 hours followed by IV administration of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution, xylazine (0.5 or 1.0 mg/kg), or detomidine (0.03 mg/kg). Horses were treated 4 times, each time with a different protocol. Following treatment, urine and blood samples were obtained at 15, 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes. Blood samples were analyzed for PCV and serum concentrations of total plasma solids, sodium, and potassium. Urine samples were analyzed for pH and concentrations of glucose, proteins, sodium, and potassium.

Results—Baseline (before treatment) urine flow was 0.30 ± 0.03 mL/kg/h and did not significantly change after treatment with saline solution and low-dose xylazine but transiently increased by 1 hour after treatment with high-dose xylazine or detomidine. Total urine output at 2 hours following treatment was 312 ± 101 mL versus 4,845 ± 272 mL for saline solution and detomidine, respectively. Absolute values of urine concentrations of sodium and potassium also variably increased following xylazine and detomidine administration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Xylazine and detomidine administration in horses deprived of feed and water causes transient increases in urine volume and loss of sodium and potassium. Increase in urine flow is directly related to dose and type of α2-adrenergic receptor agonist. Dehydration in horses may be exacerbated by concurrent administration of α2-adrenergic receptor agonists. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:1342–1346)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the effects of a chemical restraint with isoflurane compared to a physical restraint in hemogram values in psittacines.

ANIMALS

21 adult lilac-crowned parrots (Amazona finschi).

METHODS

Subjects were physically restrained for blood sample collection, after this isoflurane anesthesia was administered for 30 minutes at which time a second blood sample was taken. Hemogram values were compared between both samples using a t test in variables with normal distribution and a Wilcoxon test in variables without normal distribution. Statistical significance was established at P < .05.

RESULTS

When comparing the analytes of the respective CBCs, a decrease in PCV (P < .001), RBC count (P < .001), WBC count (P = .017), absolute lymphocytes (P = .024), and total proteins (P < .001) was observed in the samples taken under chemical restraint. No significant differences in MCV and absolute values of heterophils, monocytes, or eosinophils were observed.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Isoflurane causes a decrease in some blood count values in lilac-crowned parrots under isoflurane anesthesia for 30 minutes. Although the magnitude of change could be variable between values, it is important to consider the blood collection method when interpreting the blood count in this species.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To examine changes occurring in normal pelvic suspensory ligaments (SLs) of horses after denervating these ligaments and to investigate the effect chronic inflammation might have on these changes.

ANIMALS

10 horses.

PROCEDURES

The SL of 1 randomly selected pelvic limb of each of 5 horses was injected with collagenase to induce desmitis, and 42 days later, the proximal aspect of both pelvic SLs were denervated. The SLs were harvested 120 days after being denervated, and the morphological and histological characteristics of each collagenase-injected, denervated SL were compared with those of the contralateral, non-injected, denervated SL. All denervated SLs were compared with non-denervated pelvic SLs harvested from 5 horses similar in weight and age.

RESULTS

The mean width and the cross-sectional area of the musculature of all denervated SLs were significantly less than that of the non-denervated ligaments. The mean thickness of collagenase-injected denervated ligaments, but not that of the non-injected denervated ligaments, was significantly less than that of the non-denervated ligaments. Histological abnormalities typical of neurogenic muscular atrophy were observed in all denervated ligaments.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Loss of motor neuronal input to the proximal aspect of the SL of the pelvic limb of horses causes neurogenic atrophy of the musculature in that portion of the ligament. Denervating a SL of a pelvic limb may weaken the ligament, increasing its risk of injury. Chronic inflammation of the SL before neurectomy may exacerbate atrophy of the musculature after neurectomy.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research