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Abstract

Objective—To determine the effect of sevoflurane on cardiac energetic and hemodynamic parameters in ferrets.

Animals—7 healthy domesticated ferrets.

Procedure—Sevoflurane was used as the sole anesthetic agent for general anesthesia in ferrets. Standard midline laparotomy and median sternotomy were performed to permit instrumentation. Myocardial blood flow was determined by use of colored microsphere technology. Measurements and blood samples were obtained at 1.25%, 2.5%, and 3.75% expired concentration of sevoflurane.

Results—A dose-dependent decrease in arterial blood pressure, left ventricular pressure, systemic vascular resistance, aortic flow, and dp/dt (an index of contractility) was detected as expired concentration of sevoflurane increased. Heart rate, central venous pressure, coronary vascular resistance, myocardial oxygen extraction ratio, and (the time constant of relaxation) were unchanged. Cardiac external work decreased, as did myocardial oxygen consumption, causing increased cardiac efficiency at higher concentrations of sevoflurane.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Sevoflurane caused minimal and predictable cardiovascular effects in ferrets without increasing myocardial metabolic demands. Data obtained from this study have not been previously reported for a species that is being commonly used in cardiovascular research. These findings also support use of sevoflurane as a safe inhalant anesthetic in ferrets for clinical and research settings. ( Am J Vet Res 2004:65:653–658)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the anatomic distribution and electrophysiologic properties of accessory pathways (APs) in dogs.

Design—Case series.

Animals—10 dogs with tachyarrhythmias associated with an AP.

Procedures—Each dog underwent electrophysiologic testing to determine the inducibility of documented and undocumented arrhythmias and to identify location, conduction properties, and antegrade and retrograde effective refractory periods of the APs. Radiofrequency catheter ablation was then performed.

Results—15 APs were identified; 7 dogs each had a single AP, and 3 had multiple APs. Fourteen of the 15 APs were right-sided (6 right free wall, 4 posteroseptal, 3 midseptal, and 1 anteroseptal), and 1 was left-sided (left free wall). All APs conducted in an all-or-none fashion. Unidirectional retrograde conduction was observed in 11 APs, and bidirectional conduction was observed in 4. All documented tachyarrhythmias could be induced during electrophysiologic testing; atrial fibrillation was also inducible in 2 dogs. Mean ± SD cycle duration of orthodromic atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia was 215.80 ± 44.87 milliseconds. Mean shortest R-R interval during atrial fibrillation was 247.33 ± 83.17 milliseconds.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggested that in dogs, most APs are right-sided, had unidirectional retrograde conduction, and are associated with various arrhythmias, including orthodromic atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia and atrial fibrillation without evidence of pre-excitation.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association