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  • Author or Editor: Alberto Marco x
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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate reproducibility of ejection fraction (EF), myocardial perfusion (MP), and pulmonary transit time (PTT) measured in a group of dogs by use of contrast echocardiography and to examine safety of this method by evaluating cardiac troponin I concentrations.

Animals—6 healthy dogs.

Procedures—2 bolus injections and a constant rate infusion of contrast agent were administered IV. Echocardiographic EF was determined by use of the area-length method and was calculated without and with contrast agent. The PTT and normalized PTT (PTT/mean R-R interval) were measured for each bolus. Constant rate infusion was used for global MP evaluation, and regional MP was calculated by use of a real-time method in 4 regions of interest of the left ventricle. Cardiac troponin I concentration was analyzed before and after contrast agent administration. Intraoberserver and interobserver variability was calculated.

Results—EF was easier to determine with the ultrasonographic contrast agent. For the first and second bolus, mean ± SD PTT was 1.8 ± 0.2 seconds and 2.1 ± 0.3 seconds and normalized PTT was 3.4 ± 0.3 seconds and 3.5 ± 0.3 seconds, respectively. A coefficient of variation < 15% was obtained for global MP but not for the regional MPs. No differences were detected between precontrast and postcontrast cardiac troponin I concentrations.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Contrast echocardiography appeared to be a repeat-able and safe technique for use in the evaluation of global MP and PTT in healthy dogs, and it improved delineation of the endocardial border in dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Summary

Enzyme histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques were used to examine palatine tonsils and aggregated lymphoid follicles (Peyer's patches) of the ileum in 6- to 9-day-old and in 6-month-old pigs. Histochemical techniques were used to detect α-naphthyl-acetate esterase (anae), α-naphthyl-butyrate esterase (anbe), β-glucuronidase, adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), and acid phosphatase (AcP). Nonspecific esterases (anae, anbe) were detected in macrophages, T-cell area lymphocytes, eosinophils, fibroblastic reticular cells (frc), follicular dendritic cells (fdc), and interdigitating cells (idc). β-Glucuronidase reactivity was strong in macrophages, eosinophils, fdc, and idc, and weaker in frc. Adenosine triphosphatase reactivity was detected in B-cell area lymphocytes, fdc, frc, and idc. Cell types with acid phosphatase reactivity were macrophages, fdc, frc, and idc. Nonepithelial cells of tonsils and aggregated lymphoid follicles of the ileum had similar enzymatic reactions. In Peyer's patches, however, epithelial cells were positive for all enzymes studied; in tonsils, only nonspecific esterases were detected. Immunoperoxidase techniques were used to detect S-100 protein and cytoplasmic immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM, and IgA). The S-100 protein was detected in lymphocytes, fdc, and frc of tonsils and Peyer's patches; in tonsillar epithelial and endothelial cells; and in idc of Peyer's patches. Cytoplasmic immunoglobulins were detected in lymphoblastoid and plasmacytoid cells of follicles and diffuse lymphoid tissue in both organs and in ileal epithelial cells. Compared with those of 6-month-old pigs, cells of 6- to 9-day-old pigs stained less intensely by all enzyme histochemical techniques, and fewer cells were reactive for immunoglobulins.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research