Objective—To evaluate postmortem surgery site leakage by use of in situ isolated pulsatile perfusion after partial liver lobectomies.
Animals—10 healthy mixed-breed male dogs.
Procedures—Dogs were anesthetized, and 5 surgical techniques (pretied suture loop, energy-based sealer-divider, harmonic scalpel, suction with clip application, or suction with use of a thoracoabdominal stapler) were used to perform 5 partial liver lobectomies in each dog. Dogs were euthanatized, and the portal vein and hepatic artery were cannulated and perfused with a modified kidney perfusion machine (pulsatile flow for arterial perfusion and nonpulsatile flow for portal perfusion). Lobectomy sites were inspected for leakage of perfusate, and time until detection of leakage was recorded. The techniques in each dog were ranked on the basis of time until leakage. Time until leakage and rankings for each surgical technique were analyzed by use of an ANOVA.
Results—Leakage of perfusate was recorded in 44 lobes at supraphysiologic pressures. Of the 6 lobes without leakage, a pretied suture loop procedure was performed in 5 and a harmonic scalpel procedure was performed in 1. Time until leakage and the ranking differed significantly between the pretied suture loop and the other techniques. Time until leakage and ranking did not differ significantly among the other techniques.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Time until leakage of perfusate was greater for the pretied suture loop technique than for the other techniques, and that technique did not fail in 5 of 10 lobes. However, all techniques appeared to be safe for clinical use.
Case Description—A 5-month-old neutered male Golden Retriever was evaluated because of moderate stridor, exercise intolerance, and dyspnea. The dog had been neutered 3 weeks previously, and the referring veterinarian identified a large fluid-filled swelling on the left lateral aspect of the larynx during anesthetic intubation for that surgery. The referring veterinarian drained fluid from the mass by use of needle centesis via the oral cavity, which resulted in temporary improvement in clinical signs; however, the clinical signs returned soon thereafter.
Clinical Findings—A large, soft, spherical mass was located between the left arytenoid and thyroid cartilages and axial to the left ceratohyoid bone, thus causing partial obstruction of the rima glottidis. Laryngoscopic examination, computed tomography (CT), and cytologic evaluation of aspirates performed before surgery; examination during surgery; and histologic evaluation of tissues following surgical excision confirmed the diagnosis of a laryngeal cyst.
Treatment and Outcome—Complete surgical excision was successfully performed via a lateral extraluminal approach to the larynx. One week after surgery, the dog coughed only occasionally. Twelve months after surgery, the owner reported that the dog was clinically normal with no recurrence of clinical signs, and laryngoscopic examination revealed no recurrence of the cyst or other pathological changes in the laryngeal region.
Clinical Relevance—Congenital laryngeal cysts are rarely reported in domestic animals. The information provided here described the CT appearance of a laryngeal cyst and the use of CT in diagnosis and surgical planning. Congenital laryngeal cysts can be resected via a lateral submucosal approach.
Objective—To investigate the effects of bevacizumab, a human monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor, on the angiogenesis and growth of canine osteosarcoma cells xenografted in mice.
Animals—27 athymic nude mice.
Procedures—To each mouse, highly metastasizing parent osteosarcoma cells of canine origin were injected into the left gastrocnemius muscle. Each mouse was then randomly allocated to 1 of 3 treatment groups: high-dose bevacizumab (4 mg/kg, IP), low-dose bevacizumab (2 mg/kg, IP), or control (no treatment). Tumor growth (the number of days required for the tumor to grow from 8 to 13 mm), vasculature, histomorphology, necrosis, and pulmonary metastasis were evaluated.
Results—Mice in the high-dose bevacizumab group had significantly delayed tumor growth (mean ± SD, 13.4 ± 3.8 days; range, 9 to 21 days), compared with that for mice in the low-dose bevacizumab group (mean ± SD, 9.4 ± 1.5 days; range, 7 to 11 days) or control group (mean ± SD, 7. 2 ± 1.5 days; range, 4 to 9 days). Mice in the low-dose bevacizumab group also had significantly delayed tumor growth, compared with that for mice in the control group.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that bevacizumab inhibited growth of canine osteosarcoma cells xenografted in mice, which suggested that vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitors may be clinically useful for the treatment of osteosarcoma in dogs.
Impact for Human Medicine—Canine osteosarcoma is used as a research model for human osteosarcoma; therefore, bevacizumab may be clinically beneficial for the treatment of osteosarcoma in humans.
Objective—To develop an IM xenograft model of canine osteosarcoma in mice for the purpose of evaluating effects of radiation therapy on tumors.
Animals—27 athymic nude mice.
Procedures—Mice were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups of 9 mice each: no treatment (control group), radiation at 10 Gy, or radiation at 15 Gy. Each mouse received 5 × 105 highly metastasizing parent osteosarcoma cells injected into the left gastrocnemius muscle. Maximum tumor diameter was determined with a metric circles template to generate a tumor growth curve. Conscious mice were restrained in customized plastic jigs allowing local tumor irradiation. The behavior and development of the tumor xenograft were assessed via evaluations of the interval required for tumor-bearing limbs to reach diameters of 8 and 13 mm, extent of tumor vasculature, histomorphology of tumors, degree of tumor necrosis, and existence of pulmonary metastasis and clinical disease in affected mice.
Results—Tumor-bearing limbs grew to a diameter of 8 mm (0.2-g tumor mass) in a mean ± SEM interval of 7.0 ± 0.2 days in all mice. Interval to grow from 8 to 13 mm was significantly prolonged for both radiation therapy groups, compared with that of the control group. Histologic evaluation revealed the induced tumors were highly vascular and had characteristics consistent with those of osteosarcoma. Pulmonary metastasis was not detected, and there was no significant difference in percentage of tumor necrosis between groups.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—A reliable, repeatable, and easily produced IM xenograft model was developed for in vivo assessment of canine osteosarcoma.
OBJECTIVE To characterize the processes involved in and outcomes achieved with custom-designed patient-specific implants to provide functional replacement of skeletal structures in dogs with tumors of the mandible, radius, or tibia.
DESIGN Prospective case series.
ANIMALS 6 dogs with mandibular tumors, 5 with tumors of the distal aspect of the radius, and 1 with a tumor in the distal aspect of the tibia treated from June 2013 to September 2016 at 3 referral centers.
PROCEDURES After tumor staging, implants were designed from patients' CT scans by means of various computer-aided design applications and printed by means of selective laser melting in titanium-6 aluminum-4 vanadium alloy. A cutting jig was created in thermoplastic to ensure each osteotomy was performed as planned. Following ostectomy, the implant was secured into the defect with screws of appropriate size and length.
RESULTS Initial return to normal clinical function was good to excellent for 11 of the 12 dogs. However, major complications resulted in revision of the implant or amputation of the limb in 5 dogs, and at least 3 of these complications were considered a consequence of faulty implant design or manufacturing. Infection developed in 2 dogs and was successfully treated in 1 dog. The longest-surviving dog maintained good limb function for 2 years.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE This is the largest reported series of dogs managed with customized 3-D-printed titanium implants. The 3-D printing allowed complex and patient-specific 3-D geometries to be fabricated, enabling function-sparing treatment of bone cancer affecting multiple anatomic sites.