Case Description—3 dogs (9 to 12 years old) were evaluated because of recurrent pleural effusion that was refractory to treatment of the underlying cause.
Clinical Findings—Dogs were evaluated because of cough, dyspnea, tachypnea, or lethargy or a combination of these clinical signs. Radiography, ultrasonography, or thoracocentesis were used to confirm the presence of pleural fluid in each dog. A neoplastic cause of pleural effusion was confirmed in 2 dogs. In 1 dog, fasciitis of the mediastinum and the left parietal pleura was diagnosed, with no evidence of neoplasia.
Treatment and Outcome—Each dog was anesthestized, and thoracotomy was performed with manual perforation of the mediastinum. Permanent, subcutaneously placed vascular access ports were attached to intrathoracic, Jackson-Pratt drain tubing for repeated drainage of pleural fluid. Drains were used successfully in the 3 dogs for periods of 6 weeks, 11 weeks, and > 3 years.
Clinical Relevance—Findings suggest that subcutaneous vascular access ports attached to intrathoracic drain tubing may be an effective way to remove recurrent pleural effusion in dogs.
Objective—To determine the dietary patterns and
intake of nutrients of concern in dogs with cardiac disease.
Animals—82 dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy
(DCM) or chronic valvular disease.
Procedure—Owners of dogs were contacted and
given a standardized telephone questionnaire regarding
diet and a 24-hour food recall to determine daily
intake of calories, protein, fat, sodium, potassium,
Results—Among the 82 dogs, 71% had no congestive
heart failure (CHF), and 29% had CHF or a history
of CHF. Sixty-one percent of dogs had concurrent
diseases. Anorexia was or had been evident in 34%
of dogs and was significantly more common in the
CHF group and in dogs with DCM. Most dogs (92%)
received some treats and table food, with a median
percentage of daily calories from treats of 19%
(range, 0% to 100%). Most owners (57%) that administered
pills used human or pet foods for pill administration.
Most dogs ate more than the Association of
American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) minimum
values for fat and protein. Daily sodium intake varied
from 14 to 384 mg/100 kcal, compared with the
AAFCO minimum of 17 mg/100 kcal. A median of
25% of total daily sodium came from treats and table
food (range, 0% to 100%). Dogs with CHF ate significantly
more sodium, compared with dogs with no
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dietary intake
for dogs with cardiac disease is highly variable and
often not optimal. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223: