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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate mediolateral, axial, torsional, and craniocaudal bending behavior of 6 distal ring-block configurations commonly used to stabilize short juxta-articular bone segments in small animals.

Sample Population—8 circular external skeletal fixator constructs of each of 6 distal ring-block configurations. The distal ring-block configurations were composed of combinations of complete rings, incomplete rings, and drop wires.

Procedure—Constructs were nondestructively loaded in axial compression, craniocaudal bending, mediolateral bending, and torsional loading by use of a materials testing machine. Gap stiffness was determined by use of the resultant load displacement curve.

Results—Circular external skeletal fixator configurations and constructs significantly affected gap stiffness in all testing modes. Within each loading mode, gap stiffness was significantly different among most configurations. In general, complete ring configurations were significantly stiffer than similar incomplete ring configurations, and addition of a drop wire to a configuration significantly increased stiffness of that configuration.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—When regional anatomic structures permit, the use of complete ring configurations is preferred over incomplete ring configurations. When incomplete ring configurations are used, the addition of a drop wire is recommended. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:393–398)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare preoperative administration of meloxicam and butorphanol to perioperative administration of butorphanol alone for control of postoperative signs of pain in dogs.

Animals—40 client-owned dogs scheduled for surgical repair of a cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

Procedure—Group-1 dogs received butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg, IV) and meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg, IV) just prior to surgery. Group-2 dogs received butorphanol just prior to surgery (0.2 mg/kg, IV) and at incision closure (0.1 mg/kg, IV). Pain assessment began 1 to 2 hours before surgery and from extubation until 24 hours after surgery by obtaining the following measurements: the visual analog scale (VAS) score, cumulative pain score (CPS), adjusted cumulative pain score, modified cumulative pain score, and the adjusted modified cumulative pain score (AMCPS). Serum cortisol concentration was measured between 12 to 24 and between 1 to 2 hours prior to surgery, and at 30 minutes, and 1, 2, 4, 8, 18, and 24 hours after extubation.

Results—No significant differences between treatment groups were observed in CPS or VAS score. At 8, 9, 10, and 11 hours after extubation, meloxicambutorphanol- treated dogs had a significantly lower AMCPS, compared with butorphanol-alone-treated dogs. Total serum cortisol concentration (area under the curve) during the measurement period was significantly lower in meloxicam-butorphanol-treated dogs, compared with butorphanol-alone treated dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Preoperative single dose administration of meloxicam-butorphanol is equivalent to or slightly better than the administration of 2 perioperative doses of butorphanol for the control of postoperative signs of pain in dogs. (Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1557–1563)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To determine relative effects of ring diameter and wire tension on axial biomechanical properties of 4-ring circular external skeletal fixator constructs.

Sample Population—4-ring circular external skeletal fixator constructs and artificial bone models.

Procedure—4-ring constructs were assembled, using 50-, 66-, 84-, or 118-mm-diameter rings. Two 1.6-mm-diameter fixation wires were attached to opposing surfaces of each ring at intersection angles of 90o and placed through a gap-fracture bone model. Three examples of each construct were loaded in axial compression at 7 N/s to a maximum load of 400 N at each of 4 wire tensions (0, 30, 60, and 90 kg). Response variables were determined from resulting load-displacement curves (construct stiffness, load at 1 mm of displacement, displacement at 400 N).

Results—Ring diameter and wire tension had a significant effect on all response variables and had a significant interaction for construct stiffness and displacement at 400 N. Significant differences within all response variables were seen among all 4 ring diameters and all 4 wire tensions. As ring diameter increased, effect of increasing wire tension on gap stiffness and gap displacement at 400 N decreased. Ring diameter had a greater effect than wire tension on all response variables.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Although effects of wire tension decrease as ring diameter increases, placing tension on wires in larger ring constructs is important because these constructs are inherently less stiff. The differential contribution of ring diameter, wire tension, and their interactions must be considered when using circular external skeletal fixators. (Am J Vet Res 2001;62:1025–1030)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To describe a percutaneously controlled static hydraulic urethral sphincter (SHUS) and evaluate urodynamic effects of the SHUS in canine cadavers.

Sample Population—Cadavers of 6 adult female dogs.

Procedure—Cadavers were obtained immediately after dogs were euthanatized. Baseline maximal urethral closure pressure (MUCP) and cystourethral leak point pressure (CLPP) were measured by use of a urethral pressure profilometer. An SHUS system was constructed by use of a silicone vascular occluder and subcutaneous infusion port. The SHUS system was then placed around the pelvic urethra in each cadaver. Measurements of MUCP and CLPP were repeated after varying occlusion of the SHUS (0%, 25%, and 50% occlusion). Baseline MUCP and CLPP values were compared with values obtained at 0%, 25%, and 50% occlusion of the SHUS by use of repeatedmeasures ANOVA.

Results—Mean ± SD MUCP for canine cadavers was 7 ± 1.3 cm H2O at baseline, which increased to 127 ± 53 cm H2O after 50% occlusion of the SHUS. Mean CLPP was 11 ± 8.6 cm H2O at baseline, which increased to 73 ± 38 cm H2O after 50% occlusion of the SHUS. Mean MUCP and CLPP were significantly associated with the amount of occlusion.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—The SHUS had positive effects on MUCP and CLPP in canine cadavers. Therefore, additional evaluation of the SHUS in live dogs is warranted. ( Am J Vet Res 2004; 65:283–288)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare the axial stiffness, maximum axial displacement, and ring deformation during axial loading of single complete and incomplete circular (ring) external skeletal fixator constructs.

Sample—32 groups of single ring constructs (5 constructs/group).

Procedures—Single ring constructs assembled with 2 divergent 1.6-mm-diameter Kirschner wires were used to stabilize a 60-mm-long segment of 16-mm-diameter acetyl resin rod. Construct variables included ring type (complete or incomplete), ring diameter (50, 66, 84, or 118 mm), and fixation wire tension (0, 30, 60, or 90 kg). Axial loading was performed with a materials testing system. Construct secant stiffness and maximum displacement were calculated from the load-displacement curves generated for each construct. Ring deformation was calculated by comparing ring diameter during and after construct loading to ring diameter prior to testing.

Results—Complete ring constructs had greater axial stiffness than did the 66-, 84-, and 118-mm-diameter incomplete ring constructs. As fixation wire tension increased, construct stiffness increased in the 66-, 84-, and 118-mm-diameter incomplete ring constructs. Maximum axial displacement decreased with increasing fixation wire tension, and complete ring constructs allowed less displacement than did incomplete ring constructs. Incomplete rings were deformed by wire tensioning and construct loading.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Mechanical performance of the 66-, 84-, and 118-mm-diameter incomplete ring constructs improved when wire tension was applied, but these constructs were not as stiff as and allowed greater displacement than did complete ring constructs of comparable diameter. For clinical practice, tensioning the wires placed on 84- and 118-mm-diameter incomplete rings to 60 kg is recommended.

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare radius of curvature along the ulnar trochlear notch of Rottweilers and Greyhounds to determine whether morphologic differences exist that may contribute to the cause and pathogenesis of fragmented coronoid process in Rottweilers.

Sample Population—Paired elbow joints from 13 Rottweilers and 14 Greyhounds.

Procedure—Elbow joints were radiographically scored on the basis of severity of osteoarthritic lesions. The articular contour of each ulnar trochlear notch was digitized. The radius of curvature at defined points along the ulnar trochlear notch was compared between breeds.

Results—Radius of curvature of the ulnar trochlear notch was not a constant function of arc length in either breed but had a consistent characteristic appearance in both breeds. Radius of curvature was greatest at each end of the ulnar trochlear notch and had 2 peaks in the midportion of the notch in both breeds. These peaks occurred farther distally in the notch and were larger in Rottweiler ulnae than Greyhound ulnae. A significant difference in mean radius of curvature was detected between breeds at these peaks. Greyhounds had significantly greater mean radius of curvature at the end of the medial coronoid process, compared with Rottweilers.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Radius of curvature of the ulnar trochlear notch is a complex function of arc length in Rottweilers and Greyhounds. The waveform has a consistent characteristic appearance in both breeds. Although significant differences were identified between breeds, associations between these differences and cause or pathogenesis of fragmented coronoid process in Rottweilers were not apparent. ( Am J Vet Res 2001; 62:968–973)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate the effects of a food supplemented with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids on weight bearing in dogs with osteoarthritis.

Design—Randomized, double-blinded, controlled clinical trial.

Animals—38 client-owned dogs with osteoarthritis examined at 2 university veterinary clinics.

Procedures—Dogs were randomly assigned to receive a typical commercial food (n = 16) or a test food (22) containing 3.5% fish oil omega-3 fatty acids. On day 0 (before the trial began) and days 45 and 90 after the trial began, investigators conducted orthopedic evaluations and force-plate analyses of the most severely affected limb of each dog, and owners completed questionnaires to characterize their dogs' arthritis signs.

Results—The change in mean peak vertical force between days 90 and 0 was significant for the test-food group (5.6%) but not for the control-food group (0.4%). Improvement in peak vertical force values was evident in 82% of the dogs in the test-food group, compared with 38% of the dogs in the control-food group. In addition, according to investigators' subjective evaluations, dogs fed the test food had significant improvements in lameness and weight bearing on day 90, compared with measurements obtained on day 0.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—At least in the short term, dietary supplementation with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids resulted in an improvement in weight bearing in dogs with osteoarthritis.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association