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  • Author or Editor: Alan M. Norris x
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Medical records of 36 dogs with synovial sarcoma confirmed by microscopic examination of h&e-stained sections of tissue were selected for retrospective analysis from dogs admitted between 1986 and 1991 to participating institutions of the Veterinary Cooperative Oncology Group. Metastasis was evident at the time of diagnosis in 8 (22%) dogs, and 15 (41%) dogs ultimately developed metastatic tumors. Median survival time for all dogs, as determined by lije-table analysis, was 17 months. For dogs that were subsequently treated and became tumor free, the median disease-free interval was 30 months. Nine dogs had previously had localized excision attempted, but all had recurrence of the tumor locally (median, 4.5 months). Of 29 dogs that underwent amputation, including the 9 with localized recurrence, 2 had tumor recurrence on the amputation stump. Most dogs had survival time and disease-free interval of > 36 months after amputation. Four dogs that had received chemotherapy for tumors of advanced clinical stages did not respond to treatment. One dog that had received locally applied radiotherapy after localized excision did not have evidence of tumor recurrence 2 years after radiotherapy. Clinical stage, histologic grade, and a positive result for tests that used cytokeratin immunohistochemical staining significantly (P < 0.05) influenced survival time and disease-free interval. Analysis of data for the study reported here suggested that histologic criteria can be an excellent predictor of dogs that are likely to have tumor recurrence after amputation and that would most likely benefit from aggressive treatment with adjuvants.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


To characterize the frequency, clinical signs, biologic behavior, and response to treatment of tumors of the ear canal in dogs and cats.


Retrospective analysis of medical records.


Medical records of 81 dogs (48 malignant tumors, 33 benign tumors) and 64 cats (56 malignant tumors, 8 benign tumors).


Data were analyzed for cats and dogs with malignant tumors, and risk factors were analyzed for their potential impact on survival time.


Malignant tumor types most commonly reported included ceruminous gland adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and carcinoma of undetermined origin. Median survival time of dogs with malignant aural tumors was > 58 months, whereas that of cats was 11.7 months. A poor prognosis was indicated by extensive tumor involvement (dogs) and by neurologic signs at time of diagnosis, diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma or carcinoma of undetermined origin, and invasion into lymphatics or blood vessels (cats).

Clinical Implications

Malignant tumors of the ear canal in dogs and cats have a propensity for local invasion, but tend not to metastasize. Squamous cell carcinoma and carcinoma of undetermined origin were the most locally aggressive tumors. Malignant tumors of the ear canal are best managed by aggressive surgical excision. Radiotherapy may be useful when tumors cannot be completely removed. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 1996;208:1413-1418)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Long-term follow-up information pertaining to 162 dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma treated by amputation alone was collected from 17 veterinary institutions. The majority (72.5%) of dogs died or were euthanatized because of problems documented to be related to metastases. The first clinically apparent sites of metastasis were the lungs (60.8% of total), the skeleton (5.2%), or both (4.6%). A Kaplan-Meier survivorship distribution was plotted on the basis of available survival time data in all 162 dogs. The mean and median survival times were estimated to be 19.8 and 19.2 weeks, respectively, and the 1- and 2-year survival rates were estimated to be 11.5 and 2.0% respectively.

Statistically significant relationships were not found between survival time and reporting institution, gender, site of primary tumor, whether the primary tumor was proximally or distally located, whether the primary tumor was located in the forelimb or hind limb, whether presurgical biopsy was performed, and whether death was tumor related. A significant (P < 0.01) quadratic relationship was found between age and survival time. Survival time was longest in dogs 7 to 10 years old and was shorter in older and younger dogs.

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association