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Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The data presented in this paper are derived from an in vivo study performed to characterize the nature of the synovial integration process of a 2.5% synthetic cross-linked injectable polyacrylamide hydrogel (2.5 iPAAG) injected IA in horses.

ANIMALS

10 healthy horses not suffering from OA or signs of joint disease were administered 50 or 100 mg 2.5 iPAAG in a total of 13 metacarpophalangeal or middle carpal joints.

METHODS

Injected joints were examined at 0, 14, 42, and/or 90 days postinjection. Parameters investigated included clinical examination, synoviocentesis, gross pathology, histology, and scanning electron microscopy.

RESULTS

All horses remained clinically normal, with no adverse events recorded throughout the study period. Gross postmortem did not reveal any significant findings. Arthrocentesis cytology parameters remained within clinically normal levels throughout the study. Synovial histology demonstrated that cellular infiltration of macrophages, villus hyperplasia, and vascularization were significantly higher in 2.5 iPAAG–injected joints compared to controls. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the 2.5 iPAAG demonstrated an extensive tissue integration as a 3-D scaffolding structure with intact cross-linked strands.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Results confirm that an IA injection of 2.5 iPAAG induces a typical foreign body response that is predominately macrophage driven with no evidence of fibrosis or mineralization. Integration of the gel is evident by 14 days, with no free gel remaining in the joint cavity at this time.

Open access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association