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  • Author or Editor: Alan J. Lipowitz x
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Objective—To measure and compare tibial plateau angles (TPA) of dogs with cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) injuries and dogs without CrCL injuries.

Design—Prospective study.

Animals—87 dogs.

Procedure—Stifle joints were measured from lateral radiographic views to determine TPA in 3 groups: group-1 dogs had CrCL injuries, group-1a dogs, a subgroup of group 1, had 1 unaffected stifle joint, and group-2 dogs had no CrCL injuries. Age, sex, breed, body weight, limb injured, and TPA were recorded for each dog.

Results—56 stifle joints were measured in group-1 dogs; mean TPA was 23.76°, and mean age and weight were 5.7 years and 37.91 kg (83.4 lb), respectively. Fourteen stifle joints were measured in group-1a dogs; mean TPA was 24.71°, and mean age and weight were 5.6 years and 38.06 kg (83.8 lb), respectively. Sixty stifle joints were measured in group-2 dogs; mean TPA was 18.10°, and mean age and weight of these dogs were 4.83 years and 35.85 kg (79 lb), respectively. The most common breeds included Labrador Retriever, Golden Retriever, and Rottweiler. The TPA of dogs in group 1 and group 1a were significantly greater than the TPA of dogs in group 2.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Dogs with CrCL injuries have a significantly greater TPA than dogs without CrCL injury. With further investigation, a normal TPA can be determined. In the future, TPA measurements may be used to screen dogs suspected of being susceptible to CrCL injury. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2001;218:363–366)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objectives—To determine the earliest age that canine tibial plateau angles (TPAs) can be reliably measured and determine whether TPAs change during long bone growth.

Animals—10 Labrador Retrievers and 20 Labrador Retriever-hound crossbreeds.

Procedure—Stifle joints were radiographed every 2 months from 8 weeks of age to radiographic closure of the tibial physes. Four examiners radiographically evaluated TPA, physeal closure status (ie, complete or incomplete) of the proximal and distal tibial physis, and whether anatomic TPA measurement landmarks were sufficiently visible (LSV) or insufficiently visible (LIV) for accurate measuring. Linear regression analysis was performed to detect change in TPAs over time. Mean ages with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were determined for dogs with radiographs classified as LIV and LSV.

Results—TPAs did not change from 90 days of age to physeal closure. Mean age for dogs with radiographs classified as LIV was 70.2 days (95% CI, 68.12 to 72.28 days), with no dog with LIV radiographs over 81 days of age. Mean age for dogs with radiographs classified as LSV was 85.5 days (CI, 76.73 to 94.27 days).

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—TPAs in Labrador Retrievers and Labrador Retriever-hound crossbreeds can be measured accurately after 90 days of age, and earlier attempts to measure result in falsely low TPA measurements. Measuring TPAs in growing dogs may allow earlier detection of premature physeal closures. As more is learned about the role of the TPA in cranial cruciate ligament injury, early treatment may be possible for growing dogs with cruciate ligament injuries and excessive tibial slope. (Am J Vet Res 2004;65:513–518)

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in American Journal of Veterinary Research


Objective—To identify factors associated with leakage following intestinal anastomosis in dogs and cats.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—90 dogs and 25 cats.

Procedure—Medical records of all dogs and cats that underwent intestinal resection and anastomosis between 1991 and 2000 were reviewed, and information on 27 factors was recorded.

Results—Anastomotic leakage was identified in 13 of the 90 dogs but in none of the 25 cats. Preoperative factors significantly associated with development of anastomotic leakage in dogs included preoperative peritonitis, serum albumin concentration, a left shift, and indication for surgery (dogs with intestinal foreign bodies were more likely to have leakage than dogs that underwent surgery for any other cause). Postoperative and case management factors significantly associated with development of leakage included duration of hospitalization, supplemental alimentation, whether the dog ate the day after surgery, blood product administration, and outcome (died vs survived). Discriminant analysis was performed, and dogs with 2 or more of the following factors were predicted to develop anastomotic leakage: preoperative peritonitis, intestinal foreign body, and serum albumin concentration ≤ 2.5 g/dL. The model accurately predicted whether leakage would develop in 67 of 80 (84%) dogs.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results suggest that a variety of factors may be associated with development of intestinal anastomotic leakage in dogs. In particular, dogs with 2 or more of the following risk factors are predicted to be at high risk for developing anastomotic leakage: preoperative peritonitis, intestinal foreign body, and serum albumin concentration ≤ 2.5 g/dL. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003; 223:73–77)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association


Objective—To identify surgical and postoperative complications of tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) in dogs with rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) and compare their incidence with those reported in the literature for other commonly performed CCL stabilization procedures.

Design—Retrospective study.

Animals—346 dogs undergoing 397 TPLO procedures.

Procedure—Medical records of dogs undergoing 563 consecutive TPLO procedures were reviewed. Complications were recorded and assigned to groups on the basis of the period during which the complication was observed.

Results—397 TPLOs met the criteria for inclusion in the study. Complications (n = 136) were recorded in 113 of the 397 (28%) procedures. Multiple complications developed in 10 dogs. In 19 dogs, a second surgery was performed to manage complications. Development of a complication after surgery was not associated with age or body weight of the dog, tibial plateau angle prior to stifle joint surgery, or experience of the surgeon. Factors significantly associated with complications were breed and performance of an arthrotomy concomitantly with TPLO.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—TPLO was associated with development of numerous complications, some of which required surgical correction. Most complications resolved with nonsurgical treatment. Several complications were unique to the TPLO procedure because of the surgical technique and implants required. Although TPLO was associated with a greater number of complications than other CCL stabilization methods, the incidence of major complications was similar. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:184–193)

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in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association