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  • Author or Editor: Alan G. Mathew x
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Abstract

Objective—To identify in vitro effects of hydrochloric acid, valeric acid, and other volatile fatty acids (VFAs) on the pathogenesis of ulcers in the nonglandular portion of the equine stomach.

Sample Population—Gastric tissues from 13 adult horses.

Procedure—Nonglandular gastric mucosa was studied by use of Ussing chambers. Short-circuit current (Isc) and potential difference were measured and electrical resistance and conductance calculated after tissues were bathed in normal Ringer's solution (NRS) or NRS and hydrochloric, valeric, acetic, propionic, and butyric acids. Treated tissues were examined histologically.

Results—Incubation in 60mM valeric acid at pH ≤ 7.0 abruptly and irreversibly abolished Isc, which was followed by a slower decrease in resistance and an increase in conductance. Incubation in 60mM acetic, propionic, and butyric acids and, to a lesser extent, hydrochloric acid at pH ≤ 7.0 significantly decreased Isc, which was followed by an increase in resistance and a decrease in conductance.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Incubation in valeric acid at pH ≤ 7.0 caused a dramatic decrease in mucosal barrier function in the nonglandular portion of the stomach. Changes in barrier function attributable to exposure to valeric acid were associated with histopathologic evidence of cellular swelling in all layers of the nonglandular mucosa. Because of its high lipid solubility, valeric acid penetrates the nonglandular gastric mucosa, resulting in inhibition of sodium transport and cellular swelling. Valeric acid and other VFAs in gastric contents may contribute to the pathogenesis of ulcers in the nonglandular portion of the stomach of horses. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:413–417)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To identify the pathogenesis of gastric ulcers by comparing injury to the nonglandular gastric mucosa of horses caused by hydrochloric acid (HCl) or volatile fatty acids (VFAs).

Sample Population—Gastric tissues from 30 horses.

Procedure—Nonglandular gastric mucosa was studied by use of Ussing chambers. Short-circuit current (Isc) and potential difference were measured and electrical resistance calculated for tissues after addition of HCl and VFAs to normal Ringer's solution (NRS). Tissues were examined histologically.

Results—Mucosa exposed to HCl in NRS (pH, 1.5) had a significant decrease in Isc, compared with Isc for mucosa exposed to NRS at pH 4.0 or 7.0. Also, exposure to 60mM acetic, propionic, and butyric acids (pH, 4.0 or 1.5) caused an immediate significant decrease in Isc. Recovery of sodium transport was detected only in samples exposed to acetic acid at pH 4.0. Recovery of sodium transport was not seen in other mucosal samples exposed to VFAs at pH ≤ 4.0.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Acetic, butyric, and propionic acids and, to a lesser extent, HCl caused decreases in mucosal barrier function of the nonglandular portion of the equine stomach. Because of their lipid solubility at pH ≤ 4.0, undissociated VFAs penetrate cells in the nonglandular gastric mucosa, which causes acidification of cellular contents, inhibition of sodium transport, and cellular swelling. Results indicate that HCl alone or in combination with VFAs at gastric pH ≤ 4.0 may be important in the pathogenesis of gastric ulcers in the nonglandular portion of the stomach of horses. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:404–412)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To measure pH, volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations, and lactate concentrations in stomach contents and determine number and severity of gastric lesions in horses fed bromegrass hay and alfalfa hay-grain diets.

Animals—Six 7-year-old horses.

Procedure—A gastric cannula was inserted in each horse. Horses were fed each diet, using a randomized crossover design. Stomach contents were collected immediately after feeding and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 12, and 24 hours after feeding on day 14. The pH and VFA and lactate concentrations were measured in gastric juice. Number and severity of gastric lesions were scored during endoscopic examinations.

Results—The alfalfa hay-grain diet caused significantly higher pH in gastric juice during the first 5 hours after feeding, compared with that for bromegrass hay. Concentrations of acetic, propionic, and isovaleric acid were significantly higher in gastric juice, and number and severity of nonglandular squamous gastric lesions were significantly lower in horses fed alfalfa hay-grain. Valeric acid, butyric acid, and propionic acid concentrations and pH were useful in predicting severity of nonglandular squamous gastric lesions in horses fed alfalfa hay-grain, whereas valeric acid concentrations and butyric acid were useful in predicting severity of those lesions in horses fed bromegrass hay.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—An alfalfa haygrain diet induced significantly higher pH and VFA concentrations in gastric juice than did bromegrass hay. However, number and severity of nonglandular squamous gastric lesions were significantly lower in horses fed alfalfa hay-grain. An alfalfa hay-grain diet may buffer stomach acid in horses. (Am J Vet Res 2000;61: 784–790)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine whether muscle-sparing laryngoplasty results in fewer changes in swallowing function compared to standard surgical treatment for laryngeal paralysis.

ANIMALS

12 clinically normal sexually intact male Beagles.

PROCEDURES

Group A dogs (n = 4) had a standard approach to the larynx, with left arytenoid cartilage lateralization. Group B dogs (n = 4) had a muscle-sparing laryngoplasty performed with the thyropharyngeus muscle fibers bluntly separated, and the cricoarytenoideus dorsalis muscle spared. Pre- and 24-hour postoperative fluoroscopic swallowing studies were performed and graded. Larynges were harvested after humane euthanasia, and glottic area was measured. Group C dogs (n = 4) acted as controls, with surgical dissection ending lateral to the thyropharyngeus muscle, arytenoid lateralization not performed, and the dogs not euthanized. The study was performed between October 15, 2011 and May 15, 2021.

RESULTS

Changes in pharyngeal and upper esophageal sphincter function were not detected in any group. There was no difference in glottic area between treatment groups. Aspiration of liquid was not a consistent finding. Two dogs in each treatment group developed moderate to severe cervical esophageal paresis. This did not occur in control dogs.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

We found no evidence to support our hypothesis that muscle-sparing laryngoplasty results in less severe changes in swallowing function compared to a standard technique. The cervical esophageal paresis identified in both treatment groups could increase the risk of postoperative aspiration pneumonia in dogs treated for laryngeal paralysis via a lateral approach to the larynx. Further study to determine the frequency, cause, and duration of esophageal dysfunction is warranted.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research