Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 5 of 5 items for

  • Author or Editor: Alain Regnier x
  • Refine by Access: All Content x
Clear All Modify Search

Abstract

Objective—To assess the anesthetic efficacy and local tolerance of topically applied 0.4% oxybuprocaine ophthalmic solution to in dogs and compare its effects with those of 1% tetracaine solution.

Animals—34 ophthalmically normal Beagles.

Procedures—Dogs were assigned to 2 groups, and baseline corneal touch threshold (CTT) was measured bilaterally with a Cochet-Bonnet aesthesiometer. Dogs of group 1 (n = 22) received a single drop of 0.4% oxybuprocaine ophthalmic solution in one eye and saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control treatment) in the contralateral eye. Dogs of group 2 (n = 12) received a single drop of 0.4% oxybuprocaine ophthalmic solution in one eye and 1% tetracaine ophthalmic solution in the contralateral eye. The CTT of each eye was measured 1 and 5 minutes after topical application and then at 5-minute intervals until 75 minutes after topical application.

Results—CTT changes over time differed significantly between oxybuprocaine-treated and control eyes. After instillation of oxybuprocaine, maximal corneal anesthesia (CTT = 0) was achieved within 1 minute, and CTT was significantly decreased from 1 to 45 minutes, compared with the baseline value. No significant difference in onset, depth, and duration of corneal anesthesia was found between oxybuprocaine-treated and tetracaine-treated eyes. Conjunctival hyperemia and chemosis were detected more frequently in tetracaine-treated eyes than in oxybuprocaine-treated eyes.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Topical application of oxybuprocaine and tetracaine similarly reduced corneal sensitivity in dogs, but oxybuprocaine was less irritating to the conjunctiva than was tetracaine.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To compare penetration of IV administered marbofloxacin in intraocular fluids of healthy and inflamed eyes in rabbits with endotoxin-induced endophthalmitis.

Animals—35 pigmented rabbits.

Procedures—Endophthalmitis was induced in the right eye via intravitreal administration of Escherichia coli endotoxin. The left eye was a control eye. After 24 hours, a single dose of marbofloxacin (4 mg/kg, IV) was administered. Groups of rabbits (n = 5/group) were euthanized 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 10, and 18 hours later, and blood and ocular fluids were collected. Marbofloxacin concentrations were determined via reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and pharmacokinetic analysis of the data was performed with a mono-compartmental model.

Results—Mean area under the aqueous concentration-time curve was significantly lower in control eyes (1.64 ± 0.07 μg•h/mL) than in inflamed eyes (3.31 ± 0.11 μg•h/mL). Similarly, drug penetration into aqueous humor was 33% and 65% for control eyes and inflamed eyes, respectively. Mean area under the vitreous humor concentration-time curve for control eyes(1.75 ± 0.05 μg•h/mL) was significantly less than for inflamed eyes (2.39 ± 0.16 μg•h/mL). In the vitreous humor, corresponding penetrations were 34% and 47%, respectively.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Penetration of marbofloxacin into the aqueous and vitreous humor after IV administration was significantly enhanced by intraocular inflammation, suggesting a role for this antimicrobial in the prophylaxis or treatment of bacterial endophthalmitis caused by susceptible pathogens.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To assess changes in pupil size and intraocular pressure (IOP) following topical application of a 0.5% tropicamide solution in the eyes of healthy butorphanol-sedated dogs.

ANIMALS: 12 healthy adult Beagles.

PROCEDURES: In a randomized crossover study consisting of 2 treatment periods with a 1-week washout between periods, dogs received an IM injection of butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg) or an equal volume of sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. For each dog, 1 drop of 0.5% tropicamide ophthalmic solution was topically instilled in one eye and 1 drop of artificial tear solution was topically instilled in the other eye 10 minutes after the IM injection and again 5 minutes later. Extent of sedation, pupil size, and IOP were evaluated from 20 minutes before to 80 minutes after the IM injection and compared among treatment combinations.

RESULTS: Butorphanol induced mild (n = 9) or moderate (3) sedation in all dogs and slightly delayed the onset of, but did not prevent, tropicamide-induced mydriasis. Butorphanol caused a significant increase in IOP, which was not exacerbated by tropicamide-induced mydriasis; however, that increase was generally not sufficient to exceed the upper limit of the IOP reference range.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Results indicated that butorphanol did not prevent tropicamide-induced mydriasis but did increase the IOP in ophthalmologically normal Beagles. Although the butorphanol-induced increase in IOP did not appear clinically relevant for the dogs of this study, that may not be true for dogs with glaucoma, and care should be taken when butorphanol is administered to such dogs.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To evaluate, by use of population pharmacokinetics, the disposition of marbofloxacin in the aqueous humor after IV administration in dogs and identify its potential usefulness in the prophylaxis and treatment of intraocular infection.

Animals—63 dogs.

Methods—Dogs received a single dose of marbofloxacin (2 mg · kg–1, IV) at various time intervals before cataract surgery. Aqueous humor and blood samples were collected at the beginning of surgery. Marbofloxacin concentrations were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Data were analyzed with a nonlinear mixed-effect model and, by use of population pharmacokinetic parameters, the time course of aqueous humor concentration was simulated for single doses of 3, 4, and 5.5 mg · kg–1IV. Pharmacodynamic surrogate markers and measured aqueous humor concentrations were used to predict in vivo antimicrobial activity.

Results—A maximum marbofloxacin concentration of 0.41 ± 0.17 µg·mL–1 was reached in the aqueous humor 3.5 hours after IV administration. In the postdistributive phase, marbofloxacin disappeared from aqueous humor with a half-life of 780 minutes. The percentage penetration into the aqueous humor was 38%. Predictors of antimicrobial effects of marbofloxacin (2 mg · kg–1, IV) indicated that growth of the enterobacteriaceae and certain staphylococcal species would be inhibited in the aqueous humor. Marbofloxacin administered IV at a dose of 5.5 mg · kg–1 would be predicted to inhibit growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and all strains of staphylococci but would not eradicate streptococcal infections.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Marbofloxacin administered IV can penetrate the aqueous humor of canine eyes and may be suitable for prophylaxis or treatment of certain anterior chamber infections. (Am J Vet Res 2003;64:889–893)

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

Objective—To measure florfenicol concentrations in ovine tear fluid after IM and SC administration and determine minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of florfenicol against field isolates of Mycoplasma organisms potentially involved in infectious keratoconjunctivitis.

Animals—9 healthy adult Lacaune ewes.

Procedures—Animals received an IM and SC administration of florfenicol (20 mg/kg) in a 2-way crossover design. Samples of blood and tear fluid were collected before and for 24 hours after administration. Concentrations of florfenicol in plasma and tear fluid were measured via high-performance liquid chromatography. The MIC of florfenicol for various Mycoplasma strains cultured from sheep and goats was determined via an agar dilution method.

Results—Mean florfenicol concentration in tear fluid for the 24-hour period was significantly higher after IM administration (0.70 μg/mL) than after SC administration (0.22 μg/mL) and was maintained for a longer duration. The lacrimal fluid-to-plasma concentration ratio was not different between the 2 routes of administration, with mean values of 40.2% and 32.5% after IM and SC administration, respectively. The MIC for Mycoplasma agalactiae, Mycoplasma conjunctivae, and Mycoplasma mycoides isolates ranged from 0.5 to 8 μg of florfenicol/mL. Two strains of M agalactiae could be considered resistant to florfenicol.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Florfenicol readily penetrated the preocular tear fluid of sheep after IM and SC administration. For both routes of administration, doses > 20 mg/kg would be necessary to achieve tear fluid concentrations of florfenicol greater than the MICs for most strains of Mycoplasma organisms.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research