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  • Author or Editor: Akhilesh Ramachandran x
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Abstract

OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of Alaria infection in cats and dogs in north central Oklahoma over various periods and investigate whether wild animal species in this region were also infected.

DESIGN Combined cross-sectional study and case series.

SAMPLE Results of parasitological testing of fecal samples from 5,417 client-owned dogs and 1,246 client-owned cats (2006 through 2014); fecal samples from 837 shelter or rescue dogs and 331 shelter or rescue cats (2013 and 2014) and 268 feral cats (2015); tongue or jowl samples from cadavers of 43 wild pigs, 3 opossums, and 1 raccoon; and intestinal tract segments from cadavers of 48 cats and 5 coyotes.

PROCEDURES Various parasite recovery techniques were performed to detect various Alaria stages in samples. Recovered adult trematodes and mesocercariae were used for PCR assay and sequencing of the 28S rRNA gene.

RESULTS Prevalence of Alaria infection was significantly higher in feral cats (9.0%) than in shelter or rescue cats (0.6%) and client-owned cats (1.4%) and in shelter or rescue dogs (1.8%) than in client-owned dogs (0.2%). Mesocercariae were recovered from tissue samples from 11 (26%) wild pigs and 1 opossum. Amplicon sequences from adult trematodes and mesocercariae were 100% identical to each other and 99% homologous to GenBank sequences of Alaria alata and Alaria mustelae.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Prevalence of Alaria infection in the study area has increased in dogs and cats since 1990, when infections were rare. Prevalence in wild pigs was similar to that in Eurasia, where A alata is considered an emerging zoonotic parasite.

Full access
in Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To evaluate the topical antiseptic activity of saline, chlorhexidine (CHX), and povidone-iodine (PI) scrubs on the skin of chickens with or without the addition of DuraPrep (DP).

ANIMALS

7 healthy adult Orpington hens (Gallus gallus domesticus).

METHODS

The right apterium corporale laterale was swabbed for standard aerobic bacterial culture and colony-forming unit (CFU) determination. The apterium was divided into 3 areas and treated with sterile saline, CHX, or PI. Samples were collected by swabbing each area before and after additional treatment with DP. CFU's were counted after 48 hours of incubation. Statistical analysis was performed using a linear mixed model with a continuous outcome.

RESULTS

Compared to saline, CHX and PI treatment without DP decreased CFU count by 119 (95% CI, 55 to 183; P < .001) and 123 (95% CI, 58 to 187; P < .001), respectively. The application of DP after CHX and PI further decreased CFU counts by 6 (P = .01) and 9 (P = .01), respectively. DP after saline treatment decreased counts by 128 CFU (95% CI, 63 to 192; P < .001). No significant difference was detected between saline, PI, or CHX after DP application (−1.0 CFU; 95% CI, 63.4 to –65.4; P = .98 for both PI and CHX).

CLINICAL RELEVANCE

CHX or PI provided greater reductions in bacterial CFU than saline, and all combinations with DP provided similar results. No notable cutaneous reactions were detected at any point. This data suggests that a scrub protocol including CHX or PI with DP is acceptable in surgical site preparation of chickens.

Open access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To determine whether a stainless steel implant sterilized with a novel cold atmospheric plasma sterilization (CAPS) device adversely affects local tissues in rabbits and whether CAPS was as effective as steam sterilization with an autoclave to inactivate Pasteurella multocida.

ANIMALS

31 healthy New Zealand White rabbits.

PROCEDURES

Steam-autoclaved stainless steel implants inoculated with P multocida underwent a second steam autoclave sterilization (AIA) or CAPS (AICAPS). One AIA implant and 3 AICAPS implants were randomly placed subcutaneously at 4 sites in 21 rabbits (84 implants). These rabbits were monitored daily for 5 days for evidence of systemic illness and local tissue reactions at the implantation sites and then euthanized. Samples were taken from each implant site for bacterial culture and histologic examination.

RESULTS

Cultures of samples obtained from all sites were negative for bacterial growth. No significant difference was observed in mean skin thickness or erythema between AIA and AICAPS implant sites on any observed day. Also, individual histologic grades for the epidermis, dermis, subcutis, and muscle and total histologic grade were not significantly different between AIA and AICAPS implant sites.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

Cold atmospheric plasma sterilization was noninferior to steam sterilization of P multocida–contaminated stainless steel implants in the rabbits in the present study. However, studies of the efficacy of CAPS for inactivation of other important bacteria are needed.

Full access
in American Journal of Veterinary Research