Alfaxalone is a commonly used anesthetic agent in small animals. In cats, alfaxalone can be administered as an IM agent to achieve clinically useful sedation or anesthesia, negating the need for IV injection in difficult patients. The molecular structure of alfaxalone is similar to the hormone progesterone (P4). It is hypothesized that alfaxalone would cross-react with the assay measuring progesterone causing a false elevation.
8 healthy neutered male, domestic shorthair cats that were privately owned were enrolled in the study.
Male neutered cats were administered 3 mg/kg of alfaxalone IM. Blood samples were collected at set time points (baseline, 30 minutes, 60 minutes, 3 hours, 6 hours, and 10 hours after administration), and serum concentrations of progesterone immunoreactivity (IR) were determined using the Siemens Immulite 1000 automated immunoassay system. Statistical analysis was performed with repeated measures ANOVA and a Tukey-Cramer multiple comparisons test. A P value of < .05 was used for significance.
Serum progesterone IR was significantly elevated at 30 minutes, 1 hour, and 3 hours (P < .05) when compared to baseline progesterone immunoreactivity. Progesterone immunoreactivity had returned to baseline by 6 hours.
This study suggests that alfaxalone administered IM in cats may interfere with immunoassay measurement of serum progesterone for up to 6 hours. Caution should be used when interpreting serum progesterone immunoreactivity results in cats within 4 hours of alfaxalone.
To define cyclic changes in anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), inhibin-B, and progesterone concentrations and establish statistically valid, population-based clinical reference ranges in queens.
Cyclic queens (fertile, n = 6; infertile, 6) from an institutional breeding colony were blood sampled longitudinally, each for over 2 months, between November 2021 and February 2022, and residual serum samples from intact (n = 205) and ovariohysterectomized (49) queens from clinical submissions were used to establish reference ranges for intact and spayed females.
AMH and inhibin-B were measured using commercially available ELISAs, progesterone was measured using an in-house ELISA, and 90% CIs were calculated from these data.
AMH and inhibin-B fluctuated in a highly correlated, cyclic pattern in 3 queens that did not ovulate immediately, whereas AMH declined as progesterone increased, indicative of ovulation, which occurred spontaneously early in the sampling period in 3 others; statistically valid reference ranges were established in intact and ovariohysterectomized females.
Cyclic changes in hormone profiles were defined, providing relevant context for interpreting results in cases seeking to determine gonadal status (presence or absence of gonadal tissue) on the basis of established, population-based reference ranges reported here for cats for the first time.
Objective—To describe the health status of foals derived by use of somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT) at a university laboratory.
Design—Retrospective case series.
Animals—14 live-born NT-derived foals.
Procedures—Medical records from 2004 through 2008 were evaluated to identify all pregnancies resulting in live-born NT-derived foals. Information obtained included gestation length, birth weight, foaling complications, gross abnormalities of the fetal membranes, appearance of the umbilicus, mentation of the foal, limb deformities, and any other abnormalities detected in the neonatal period. Clinicopathologic data were also evaluated when available. Records of 4 recipient mares during gestation were included.
Results—Six foals were clinically normal for all evaluated variables. The most common abnormalities detected in the remaining 8 foals included maladjustment, enlarged umbilical remnant, and angular deformity of the forelimbs. Two foals died within 7 days after parturition; in the remaining foals, these conditions all resolved with medical or surgical management. Large offspring syndrome and gross abnormalities of the fetal membranes were not detected. The 12 surviving foals remained healthy.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Associated problems of calves resulting from use of NT have been reported, but there are few data on the outcome of foals resulting from adult somatic cell NT in horses. Although this population of foals had a lower perinatal mortality rate than has been reported for NT-derived calves, some NT-derived foals required aggressive supportive care. Birth of foals derived from NT should take place at a center equipped to handle critical care of neonates.
Rabies is the deadliest viral infection known, with no reliable treatment, and although it is entirely preventable, rabies continues to kill more than 60,000 people every year, mostly children in countries where dog rabies is endemic. America is only 1 generation away from the time when rabies killed more than 10,000 animals and 50 Americans every year, but 3 to 5 Americans continue to die annually from rabies. Distressingly, > 50,000 Americans undergo rabies prevention therapy every year after exposure to potentially rabid animals. While enormous progress has been made, more must be done to defeat this ancient but persistent, fatal zoonosis.
In the US, lack of public awareness and ambivalence are the greatest dangers imposed by rabies, resulting in unnecessary exposures, anxiety, and risk. Veterinarians have a special role in informing and reassuring the public about prevention and protection from rabies. This summary of current facts and future advances about rabies will assist veterinarians in informing their clients about the disease.